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An Overview of Pennsylvania Mapping Circa 1850 to 1900
by Harold Cramer
Pennsylvania is open to the world's oceans from Philadelphia, open to the Great Lakes from Erie, and open to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys from Pittsburgh. The job of tying these points together with each other and the rest of the state was completed by the railroads in the second half of the nineteenth century, many of which were gradually absorbed into the Pennsylvania Railroad system. The map became a commercial product of everyday use with the railroad map as the standard form. Printing costs fell as production shifted from engraving to lithography and steam machinery entered the printing house. Though atlas maps from major houses continued to be published, new cartographic items appeared as map production became routine for both government and commerce. For example, the 1876 Centennial Exhibition guide (title page right) contains both a map of Philadelphia and of the exhibition grounds. The county wall map and atlas became best sellers and later the bird's-eye-view town map. At the end of the century came the bicycle and automobile road map, which remains the dominant cartographic product to the present day.
The processes of map printing underwent more change in the mid to late nineteenth century than in the previous three hundred years. Broadly speaking, metal plate engraving predominated until 1850, lithography until 1880, and wax engraving until after 1900. No process was dominant to the exclusion of others; even woodcuts continued to be used because they could be incorporated into plates of type. Lithography was invented in Europe around 1796 and lithographic prints were made in small shops for several years in America before maps. The firm of Barnet and Doolittle of New York City produced a New York map in 1821 titled Barton on the Catskills, the earliest example of lithographic cartography in the United States.  Despite such early examples, the process was not generally used for maps until the middle of the nineteenth century when consolidation and mechanization of the printing industry and the use of metal plate, instead of fragile stone, made lithography attractive and cheap. Also, around mid-century, an influx of lithographic draftsmen and printers came from France and Germany due to political unrest in Europe. A large pool of skilled people allowed the process to be used for common commercial work.
In 1835 George Lehman, a landscape painter, and P. S. Duval, a French émigré lithographer, established a company in Philadelphia that Duval operated until 1879. Duval was one of the first to practice chromolithography and to apply the steam rotary press to lithographic printing. Map of the Swatara Coal Region, a lithograph published in 1838, was one of his first Pennsylvania maps. An 1849 map titled Map of the Anthracite Coal Regions of Pennsylvania bears the imprimatur "P. S. Duval's Lith. Press." In 1851 he printed a wall map of Lancaster County with the imprimatur "P. S. Duval's Steam Lithograph Press Philadelphia." So around 1850 the steam press entered Duval's shop in Philadelphia. A little later it crossed the mountains. An 1860 wall map of Somerset County was "Engraved by G. F. Schuchman & Co. Steam Lithography. No. 14 Third Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania." After 1850, even maps engraved on copper or steel were subsequently transferred for steam lithographic printing.
The cerographic process, a type of lithography, was developed for maps by Sidney R. Morse, the son of Jedidiah Morse and brother of Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of the telegraph. In the 1840s he published the textbook System of Geography (with the map Pennsylvania ) and the Cerographic Atlas of the United States (also with a Pennsylvania map). What distinguishes the process is the use of electrochemical deposition to create a raised printing surface; it was cheaper than metal plate engraving but did not produce as clean an image. Cerography (Morse's name for it) became more commonly known as wax engraving and was adopted by Rand McNally (who called it relief line engraving), George F. Cram, Matthews-Northrup, and the other firms that would dominate American map printing after 1880. The technique was useful where little tonal variation was acceptable and corrections constantly needed; thus ideal for monochrome maps. This short discussion of printing evolution only touches on this broad and deep topic, treated more fully elsewhere.
By 1850, sixty-two of the sixty-seven counties in Pennsylvania had been created. Four counties were added by 1860, Fulton, Montour, Snyder, and Cameron. The sixty-seventh and last county, Lackawanna with the county seat at Scranton, was created in 1878 from Luzerne County and completed the political map of the state. The laws and procedures for creating or altering counties became so restrictive that Pennsylvania county lines have been stable ever since, although township, borough, and city lines continue to change. Since 1878, only three small changes have occurred in county boundaries.  Minor adjustments were made in the boundary of Washington and Greene counties in 1887, and in the boundary of Tioga and Lycoming counties in 1900. In 1921 the long running dispute over the 'Delaware Wedge' was settled by ceding the land to Delaware. The Wedge was a small triangle of land extending south about three miles from Chester County between Maryland and the Delaware circle. When examining maps of Pennsylvania made prior to 1921, it is interesting to see what the map maker did with this little triangle; that is, whether he gave it to Pennsylvania, Maryland, or Delaware. The Wedge was so small relative to the scale on most state maps that it was often ignored. An 1848 map from S. Augustus Mitchell gives it to Pennsylvania, as does an 1897 map from The Century Atlas.
The longitude of Greenwich, defined by the position of the large Transit Circle telescope in the Observatory's Meridian Building, was selected as the Prime Meridian at an international conference in 1884. However, most maps made in the United States continued to include a Washington Prime Meridian (77d 00m 34s west) until the end of the century. Another characteristic that lingered on was the use of hand coloring. The technical means for printed lithographic color was available and was used for prints and a few important maps; but commercial maps were not considered artistic like prints and it was cheaper to pay workers, usually women working on a production line with stencils, to color rather than pay for multiple printing passes.
The number of Pennsylvania maps increases exponentially in the second half of the nineteenth century compared to earlier periods and the concept of an 'important map' becomes more nebulous. Is it one that represents the peak of a pyramid of work? The 1858 geological map by Henry Rogers was the culmination of twenty years work on the First Geological Survey. A map may be important due to circumstance. The 1858 wall map of Adams County has nothing to distinguish it from other similar maps, except the county seat of Adams County just happens to be ---Gettysburg! A map may be important because of a unique effort by an individual, such as the maps by P. W. Shaefer around 1870; or because the map is unusually attractive like the 1890s railroad maps from the state Department of Internal Affairs prepared by draftsman J. Sutton Wall. A map may be valued because it evokes nostalgia for a bygone time, such as the Arbuckle trading card maps and cycling guides of the 1890s. The point is that any selection of maps for discussion from this period is likely to seem idiosyncratic; however major themes can be reviewed.
In the spring of 1834, through travel from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh was opened. A passenger boarding a rail car at Broad and Vine Streets could be getting off a canal boat at the Forks of the Ohio four days later. He traveled 82 miles by the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad to the Susquehanna River; then by Pennsylvania Canal boat 172 miles to Hollidaysburg via the Juniata River; then by the Allegheny Portage Railroad 36 miles over the Allegheny Front to Johnstown; then by canal boat again along the Conemaugh, Kiskiminetas, and Allegheny Rivers 104 miles to Pittsburgh. 
The Portage Railroad went through the first railway tunnel driven in the United States, the Staple Bend Tunnel, today part of the Allegheny Portage Railway National Historic Site. After about twenty-five years service, this tunnel was abandoned in the late 1850s (along with the rest of the Portage Railroad) and lay derelict for 140 years until reborn in 2001 as part of a bicycle path. A famous passenger, Charles Dickens, described his trip in 1842 along the route thus: "We had left Harrisburg on Friday. On Sunday morning we arrived at the foot of the mountain, which is crossed by railroad. There are ten inclined planes; five ascending, and five descending; the carriages are dragged up the former, and let slowly down the latter, by means of stationary engines; the comparatively level spaces between, being traversed, sometimes by horse, and sometimes by engine power, as the case demands. Occasionally the rails are laid upon the extreme verge of a giddy precipice; and looking from the carriage window, the traveller gazes sheer down, without a stone or scrap of fence between, into the mountain depths below. The journey is very carefully made, however; only two carriages travelling together; and while proper precautions are taken, is not to be dreaded for its dangers." 
Perhaps not to be dreaded in the summer, but the service shut down in the winter and the canals were prone to flood and drought disruption. Even worse, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland in 1842 and wanted to run their line on to Pittsburgh and thence into Ohio to connect with the burgeoning rail lines there. In New York, the Erie Canal was complete to Buffalo and there was talk of running a rail line from the growing New York system along the lake shore to Cleveland. The idea of western commerce being diverted to New York and Baltimore was too horrible to contemplate. The politicians and businessmen of Philadelphia naturally panicked, and in defense created the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1846.
By October 1850, the Pennsylvania Railroad, driving west from Harrisburg, was connected to the Portage Railroad near Hollidaysburg. One could now travel from Philadelphia to Johnstown by rail. At the same time, the rail line was being driven east from Pittsburgh. "The red-letter day was December 10, 1852, when the first through train from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh was operated over the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the Allegheny Portage Railroad."  This event was as important to the development of Pennsylvania as the meeting of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads at Promontory Point in Utah was to the development of the United States.
The same year, 1852, R. L. Barnes published A New County Map of the State of Pennsylvania and Adjoining States, a 25 x 36 inch map published as both a folding pocket map and a linen-backed wall map. The subtitle says 'showing the route of the Central & other rail roads &c &c. Reduced from the large state map by J. W. Otley, published by R. L. Barnes, N. E. Corner 7th & Market Streets, Philadelphia 1852. Engraved on stone by Friend & Aub, 80 Walnut St. 2nd door below 4th Philada.' The phrase 'engraved on stone' and its implication of quality is a sign that steam press lithography was making inroads on the business of small lithographers, as Friend & Aub may have been. In fact, N. Friend was a graduate of P. S. Duval's establishment and engraved the well known Map of the Circuit of Ten Miles Around Philadelphia , published by Robert Pearsall Smith in 1847. Rufus L. Barnes of Philadelphia opened a map store in 1840 and also published maps. He is listed as 'Agent' (i.e. salesman or distributor) on several of the classic county wall maps of counties near Philadelphia published in the 1850s. Barnes left the business in 1867 and it passed to his assistant, J. L. Smith, who continued to publish local street maps of Philadelphia, state railroad maps, and other items until after 1900. The Barnes map has a scale of 1 inch to 10 miles and shows many roads in thin black line, but its most interesting aspect is the depiction of railroads in red line. The PRR is shown complete to Pittsburgh. The Portage Railroad bypass, which didn't open until 1854, is shown going west from Altoona (named) but the unique configuration of the Horseshoe Curve is not indicated. The line of the Sunbury & Erie railroad extends west along the Sinnemahoning Branch of the Susquehanna, with a proposed route on into Erie. The Ohio & Pennsylvania railroad extends west from Pittsburgh into Ohio toward Akron. The New York & Erie railroad goes from the Hudson River west along the New York-Pennsylvania border to Dunkirk, New York, where it joins the Lake Shore railroad going to Cleveland. The Baltimore & Ohio is complete to Cumberland with a proposed route to Wheeling bypassing Pennsylvania. Thus, the map shows rail lines that were contemplated, and perhaps under construction, but not yet complete in 1852. The Barnes map was published in The Pictorial Sketch-Book of Pennsylvania... by Eli Bowen in 1854, which contained a railway timetable (shown above) as a frontispiece.
In 1855, to celebrate the opening of the line and alert the public, the Pennsylvania Railroad published Guide for the Pennsylvania Railroad, with an Extensive Map; including the Entire Route, with all its Windings, Objects of Interest, and Information Useful to the Traveller (title page left). The map was a folded 72-inch long strip showing the line from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh and bore the ' P. S. Duval & Co's Steam Lith. ' imprint mentioned above. It was titled Map of the Pennsylvania Rail Road from Harrisburg to Pittsburg and of the Columbia & Lancaster & Harrisburg R. Rs. from Philadelphia to Harrisburg, H. Haupt, Chf. Eng., J. P. & J. Lesley Jr. Topographers. J. G. Shoemaker, Engr. P. S. Duval & Co's Steam Lith. Press, Philada. As the guide described: "The line of road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg has three owners. First, the state of Pennsylvania owns that part extending from the city (i.e. Philadelphia ) to Dillersville, one mile above Lancaster, consisting of a double track, in length 69 miles. At Dillersville, the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Railroad commences, and continues from thence to Harrisburg , a distance of 36 miles. At Harrisburg, the Pennsylvania Railroad commences, and completes the line from thence to Pittburg, a distance of 248 miles." The awkward Portage Railroad with its incline planes had been bypassed by the engineering feat of the Horseshoe Curve and two new tunnels through the Allegheny Front near Gallitzin. The PRR subsequently pushed on into New York City in the east, Chicago and St. Louis in the west, and became the largest railroad in the country; and its history passes beyond Pennsylvania.
By 1859, when Henry Rogers published his New Map of the State of Pennsylvania, the PRR was well on its way to railroad dominance. This large wall map of 36 by 67 inches has a scale of one inch to five miles and great detail, showing all the railroads, as well as canals and turnpike roads plus the location of bridges, forges, and the boundaries of townships. Rogers is better known for his geological map discussed below, to which this is a companion. He probably prepared it as a more commercial item than his geological map. However, it is not as well known as Topographical Map of the State of Pennsylvania , by H. F. Walling, Published by Smith, Palmer & Co., No. 358&360 Pearl St. New York & 27 South Sixth St. Philadelphia 1862. This enormous map (64 x 64 inches with the main state map on a scale of 1 inch to 5 miles) has the following inset maps:Climatological Map by Lorin Blodget, Topographical Map by J. Peter Lesley, street maps of Towanda, Erie, Carbondale, Honesdale, Montrose, Pittston, Williamsport, Reading, Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, Wilkes-Barre, Scranton, and of course Philadelphia. It also has a United States map plus a time and distance table. The extensive road network (thin black line) is shown as well as canals and railroads (crosshatch line). Rail lines run from Harrisburg to Erie, and along the lakeshore from Buffalo to Cleveland through Erie, from Harrisburg up the Wyoming valley into New Jersey at Port Jervis, from Pittsburgh down to Connellsville and Uniontown, and from Pittsburgh west into Ohio along the Ohio and Beaver Rivers.
Most general atlas maps from mid-century on showed railroads and canals, not roads, and the railroad map became a standard for commercial maps and atlases. This is not surprising as rail was the primary means of transportation. S. Augustus Mitchell began publishing maps circa 1830 in Philadelphia, and he and his son S. A. Jr. were among the most prolific American cartographic publishers of the nineteenth century. In 1860, S. A. Mitchell Jr. published Mitchell's New General Atlas, which appeared annually into the 1880s and which contained Plan of Philadelphia , though none of Pittsburgh. The 1865 County Map of the State of Pennsylvania comes from a later edition of that atlas. This map was "drawn and engraved by W. H. Gamble," and then apparently transferred for printing by lithography and hand colored. Rail lines are clearly indicated in black line and canals by thin double line; roads are not shown. The 1876 version of this map included plans of Williamsport, Harrisburg, Scranton, and Erie. S. A. Jr. left the business around 1880 and the atlas was taken over by William Bradley who published it during the 1880s, for example the 1887 Pennsylvania. The last edition was published in 1893 by the A. R. Keller Company. The Mitchells also published geography books and Mitchell's School Atlas, which remained in print until the 1880s and was a companion volume to Mitchell's School Geography.
John Smull was the resident clerk of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and he apparently grew tired of politicians with no idea of where to go or of what to do when they got there. So in the mid-1860s, he conceived the idea of the Pennsylvania Legislative Hand-Book 1867, filled with topical information that would be useful to legislators. The full title is Manual of Rules of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania and Legislative Directory; together with the Constitutions of the United States and of Pennsylvania (title page right). Singerly & Myers, Harrisburg, who were the contract state printers, printed the handbook and the 1867 edition contained the map Colton's Pennsylvania, which is similar to maps in earlier Colton atlases. It does show roads, but more clearly railroads in thicker black line. The map folded into the front of the handbook; attached to the back was a plan of the Senate and House chambers so legislators could find their seats. Although this 1867 handbook included a Colton map, later versions included un-attributed maps (1878 for example) apparently prepared by the state. Some roads are shown, but the railroads are emphasized in thick black line. The handbook was published into the early 1920s and the last editions contained a state road map; legislators were apparently starting to drive to Harrisburg.
J. H. Colton founded a printing house in New York City circa 1830, and Colton atlases and geography books competed with Mitchell in Philadelphia. The Colton atlas of 1855 and subsequent years contained maps of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh . The 1855 Pennsylvania map looks almost identical to that in Smull's 1867 handbook. Colton appears to have encountered financial difficulties around 1860 and disposed of some of his copyrights. This may explain why a Colton map appears in Smull's handbook published and printed by the state. J. H. Colton's sons, who identified themselves as G. W. and C. B. Colton & Company, recovered the family fortune. They resumed publishing Colton's General Atlas around 1864, which contained the large and attractive Colton's New Township Map of the State of Pennsylvania , and this atlas remained in publication until 1888. The map shows canals and rail lines, but not roads. Like the Mitchells, the Coltons also published geography books.
In addition to the Mitchells and Coltons, the third prominent American publisher of general atlases in the mid-nineteenth century was Alvin Jewitt Johnson. Johnson took advantage of Colton difficulties, purchased his atlas copyrights, and began publishing Johnson's New Illustrated Family Atlas in 1860. This first atlas was published in Richmond, thereafter Johnson moved to New York City. There was an 1862 edition by Johnson & Browning, and 1863 to 1865 editions by Johnson & Ward. The 1864 edition contained Pennsylvania and New Jersey, showing the state during the Civil War. Johnson's map is attractive with considerable detail. Townships are shown; rail lines are indicated, but not roads or canals. Johnson continued his atlas business until the 1870s and then went into encyclopedias. His circa 1885 encyclopedia contained the Map of Pennsylvania Drawn and Engraved on Copper-plate expressly for Johnson's Cyclopaedia, advertising the quality attributed to engraving as opposed to lithography.
The hand coloring of maps continued into the 1890s and one of the reasons, besides cost, was that brighter colors could be obtained. Usually maps were hand colored with a pale wash similar to watercolor; but Henry Tunison published maps with vibrant applied color, such as Tunison's Pennsylvania, from his 1885 Peerless Universal Atlas of the World. How he obtained these bright colors seems to be something of a mystery. This Tunison map is quite detailed and printed in more than one pass, though the color is hand applied. Township boundaries are indicated and the railroads by dark black lines. Tunison published his own atlases in the 1880s, and maps with his name continued to show up in works by other publishers after 1900, though not as brilliantly colored.
Tunison is little known today, but two other map publishers who started in Chicago are still around. In 1880 Rand, McNally & Co. published Rand, McNally & Co's County and Railroad Map of Pennsylvania - 25 Cent Series. This obviously cheap 6 x 3.5 inch paperback cover has the folded map attached to the back. It was made for railway travelers to easily carry in their pocket and not regret losing. The map was printed by Rand McNally's wax engraving process in red and black on thin paper and shows rail lines and many towns. Another company still around today, though much smaller than Rand McNally, is the George F. Cram Company of Chicago who published the atlas map Pennsylvania in Cram's Unrivaled Family Atlas of the World, Indexed, 1889. Again, only rail lines are shown.
The state also published railroad maps and beginning about 1890 J. Sutton Wall, a draftsman working for the Department of Internal Affairs, continued the tradition with a succession of beautiful maps. His 1890 Railroad Map of Pennsylvania is a large folding map showing the rail lines by color and name. The map is nicely colored with a handsome font, and appears to be modeled after a similar map by O. W. Gray of Philadelphia. Wall continued to improve the look of his maps (compare details of 1890 and 1898 versions) over their course of publication to around 1915 and they are among the most attractive maps of the state ever made.
The Geological Surveys
The state government was involved in survey and map-making from the earliest days of Thomas Holme, the first state surveyor. Some consider Lewis Evans to be the first state geologist because of all the topographical information in his maps and writings.  For example, the word petroleum first appears on Evans' famous 1755 map in two places. One just about where Venango County is today and the second near Wheeling. Evans accompanied his map with Geographical, historical, political, philosophical and mechanical essays. The first, containing An Analysis of a general map of the Middle British Colonies in America; and of the country of the confederate Indians; a description of the face of the country; the boundaries of the confederates; and the maritime and inland navigations of the several rivers and lakes contained therein. A description of 'the face of the country' can be considered a geological survey. Evans also wrote A Brief Account of Pennsylvania, 1753, again filled with geographic information.
The Geological Society of Pennsylvania was formed in 1832 'for the scientific and practical study of the mineral resources of the Commonwealth.' The Society was an ancestor through its successor, the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists (1840), to the American Association for the Advancement of Science begun in Philadelphia in 1848. Today, the AAAS publishes the well-known journal Science, and is the largest science organization in the world. The Geological Society petitioned the legislature to support a survey and an act was passed in 1836. Henry Darwin Rogers, at the age of 26, was appointed the first state geologist. Henry was the brother of William Barton Rogers, who became State Geologist of Virginia in the same year, and the two are sometimes confused. It is not a coincidence that geological surveys were begun in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia in the same year, 1836. At this time geology was the most active field in American science.
The First Geological Survey ended in 1858 with the publishing of The Geology of Pennsylvania (title page left). Henry Rogers published this two-volume work privately because of a lack of state funding in return for all the proceeds of sale. He was at the University of Glasgow as a recently appointed professor at the time, and the illustrations and maps were engraved by W. & A. K. Johnston of Edinburgh and William Blackwood & Sons of Edinburgh printed the two volumes. J. B. Lippincott, a Philadelphia publisher, sold them in the United States. The work contained two regular maps, the separate Geological Map of the State of Pennsylvania, and a map of the anthracite coal regions. It also had many strata section maps and land form illustrations by George Lehman. This geological map is notable for being one of the earliest with printed color and was in three sections (eastern , central, western ) because of the large size (36 x 24 inches each).
A year later Rogers published the New Map of the State of Pennsylvania mentioned above. This map was made using the same initial plate as the geological map for the first printing. However, instead of the geological information, the subsequent printing added an overlay of the township boundaries and other information. A note on the map says "The fine dotted lines belong to the State Geological Map," which explains a holdover feature from the first printing. These two maps are thus companions.
Rogers co-authored (with A. K. Johnston) Atlas of the United States of North America, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Mexico, Central America, Cuba, and Jamaica, published in London in 1857. Plate 9 was a map of the northeast. So, in the space of three years, Rogers published a major atlas, his two volume geological study, and two major maps of Pennsylvania, the culmination of 20 years work. He died, a comparatively young man, in 1866 and is recognized as one of the foremost geologists of the nineteenth century. By contrast, Henry's brother William never finished the Virginia survey and never contributed much to geology. However, he did go to Boston and helped to found, and became the first president of a small school there called the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The Second Geological Survey began after the Civil War and ended circa 1895. J. P. Lesley, who had worked with Rogers and who became state geologist in 1874, oversaw it. One of its many publications was County Geological Maps which contained the Skeleton Geological Map of Pennsylvania - Plate X. The full title of the atlas is The Secondd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania Hand-Atlas, County Geological Maps, Harrisburg 1885; which is an 'Extra Edition on Heavy Paper' of the smaller original atlas titled A Geological Hand Atlas of the Sixty Seven Counties of Pennsylvania. The atlas included this state map and 61 county maps (some maps have two counties, for example Northumberland and Montour). Although the atlas was published in 1885, the maps are variously dated between 1878 and 1884. The Survey published a large number of detailed reports containing regional maps, and also the Grand Atlas in six volumes, which was essentially a compilation of the maps published in separate reports.
The Third Geological Survey was a short affair and ended in 1915 with publication of all the U. S. Geological Survey quadrants for the state, for example, the 1904 Indiana Folio. Today, the Pennsylvania Geologic Survey is called the Bureau of Topographic and Geological Survey, and is part of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, and continues to publish maps.
County Wall Maps and Atlases
A commercially successful map at mid-century was the large county wall map which led directly to the county atlas. John Melish, around 1816, had wanted to prepare a map for each county in the state, and petitioned the state legislature for the project, but only a few were eventually published.  However, from circa 1850 to 1880, a large wall map was published for almost every county coming from many different publishers. The first of the classic county wall maps from this period was one of Chester County published in 1847, and the last one of the recently created Lackawanna County in 1879; however, most appeared in the 1850s.
Philadelphia County is a special case, as large-scale city maps were steadily published from its earliest days. Today the city and county of Philadelphia are one and the same, the only such arrangement in the state. The Act of Consolidation, passed by the state legislature in 1854, provided that the city of Philadelphia, as limited by the charter of 1789, should take in all the territory within the county of Philadelphia. The next year, 1855, R. L. Barnes published Barnes' New Map of the Consolidated City of Philadelphia Being the first Map published after the Act of Incorporation, passed January 31st 1854, which is a large colored wall map with several vignettes.
The wall Map of Adams Co. Pennsylvania, prepared by G. M. Hopkins and published in 1858, was an important map in the Civil War, the only large-scale map of the Gettysburg region available at the time of the battle. "A classic period wall map that became the Civil War's most famous county map. Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Jubal A. Early are believed to have used this map... Union commander George Gordon Meade is described as poring over a large map of Adams County, which could only mean this one." Of similar interest to the Confederates was the Map of Franklin County, Pennsylvania also published in 1858, because their army entered the state there, looting the county seat of Chambersburg on the way to Gettysburg.
This is a good place to mention maps of Gettysburg, which are a subject all their own. The battle became famous from the day it ended and many battlefield maps appeared during the rest of the 19th century. One example is from Notes on the Rebel Invasion of Maryland & Pennsylvania and Battle of Gettysburg, by M. Jacobs, published by J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia 1864. Jacobs was a professor at Pennsylvania College in Gettysburg and an eyewitness to the battle. His booklet was very popular, going to seven editions by 1909. The Union divisions are shown in red and the Confederate in blue, the reverse of the usual coloring. An attempt to show the entire battle is made by giving dates to the various positions. The military maps prepared by both armies during the war were used for the Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies published by the Federal government in the early 1890s. Several of the maps in that atlas show portions of southern Pennsylvania, one shows the Gettysburg area.
With the advent of lithography and mechanized printing, publishers came up with the idea of presenting county maps in the form of an atlas, which could now be produced cheaply. Large wall maps were unwieldy and could only accommodate so much information. An atlas could be 10 pages or a 100, and easily include text, prints, and advertisement in addition to maps. Henry Bridgens created the first classic county atlas in 1861 by cutting up the Map of Berks County Pennsylvania; which makes it, like the one of Adams County, famous due to circumstance. The work of Lawrence Fagan, this wall map had been published by Bridgens in 1860. Fagan was a surveyor who worked primarily in New York and New England, while Bridgens was from eastern Pennsylvania. The map is 56 x 64 inches overall with the convenient scale of one inch equals one mile. Townships are in outline color and local roads are shown. The railroads shown are: the Philadelphia and Reading, Auburn & Allentown, East Penna., and Lebanon Valley. It contains numerous insets: maps of Reading, Boyertown, Kutztown, Bernville, Leesport , Hamberg, Womelsdorf, Shoemakersville; engraved views of Reading, Berks Co. Prison, Berks Co. Courthouse, Charles Evans Cemetery; tables for distances, list of post offices, and various statistics. These many insets explain the motivation for turning the wall map into an atlas. The Berks County atlas bore the same title as the map and was 16 inches square with 32 pages. In 1862 Bridgens published an expanded version with the new title Township Map of Berks County, Pennsylvania. The classic American county atlas that Bridgens originated is unique, with no European predecessors and no real imitators since. These atlases were an entirely commercial venture; the government was not involved. Reasons cited for their popularity include patriotism due to the approach of the centennial year, 1876, and the intense interest in land speculation during the period. 
In 1864 appeared Bridgens' Atlas of Lancaster County, Penna. (title page right) which contained Plan of the City of Lancaster . During the early years, Lancaster and its county were second only to Philadelphia in importance in the state. Lancaster was the Capitol of the United States for a few days in 1777 when the British threatened Philadelphia, and it was the State Capitol from 1799 to 1812. Bridgens did not exploit his idea and published only one additional atlas of Chester County in 1873. However, other publishers quickly entered the business. Some leading makers of Pennsylvania county atlases were Frederick W. Beers along with his cousins Silas and Daniel Beers and their brother-in-law Beach Nichols of New York, G. M. Hopkins of Philadelphia, A. Pomeroy of Philadelphia and New York, J. A. Caldwell of Condit, Ohio, and L. H. Everts of Philadelphia. The lithographer Otto Krebs of Pittsburgh printed several county atlases. The only counties for which no atlas was published in the nineteenth century are the following: Cameron, Clinton, Elk, Forest, Fulton, McKean, Northumberland, Pike, Potter, Sullivan, and Wyoming. That is only 11 out of 67 counties. Venango County does not have a name atlas, but was covered by Atlas of the Oil Region of Pennsylvania, published by F. W. Beers in 1865. Lackawanna County was part of Luzerne County for which there are 1873 and 1874 atlases; and there is an atlas for the county seat of Scranton (where most people lived) published by G. M. Hopkins in 1877. The county surveyor published an atlas of Fulton County in 1916, apparently privately. For a few counties, Luzerne for example, more than one atlas was published. Some atlases covered two or three counties, such as Atlas of Perry, Juniata and Mifflin Counties from Beach Nichols. Graves & Steinbarger of Boston and Philadelphia published an atlas of Lancaster County in 1899; thus, for Pennsylvania, the age of the classic county atlas covers the last forty years of the nineteenth century. There are about 65 different Pennsylvania county atlases from this period, not counting many of Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and other cities.
Most of the counties with no atlas had small populations that perhaps would not support a subscription, and atlases were usually sold by subscription. Salesmen, illustrators, and surveyors hired by the publisher would go door to door soliciting orders for the atlas and for an illustration of one's home, business, or farm. If enough people signed up, the atlas was made and the purchaser could proudly point to the image of his house or business. Advertisements and glowing accounts of local notables were also solicited and printed in the back. Maps were hand colored. The lithograph prints in county atlases were usually in black and white; but a few atlases included prints with sometimes pale and sometimes vibrant color. Color lithographic prints similar to those in the atlases were a separate market filled almost exclusively by Currier & Ives, whose history is a story all its own that has little to do with Pennsylvania maps.
The Johnstown Flood of 1889, with about 2200 casualties, is one of the worst disasters in American history. In 1890, just one year later, J. A. Caldwell issued the Illustrated Historical Combination Atlas of Cambria County Pennsylvania, from actual surveys by & under the directions of J. A. Caldwell, published by Atlas Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pa 1890 (title page right). This was one of the last of the classic county atlases and contains a record of the flood in addition to the usual maps and illustrations. Caldwell undoubtedly exploited the disaster for sales, but he also provided an excellent documentary on it. A bird's eye view of the Conemaugh valley shows the flood area, as does a plan of Johnstown, and a melodramatic lithograph illustrates the artist's vision of the event. Even more moving is a multipage, multicolumn listing of the dead included in a written account of the flood.
Another publishing venture that followed the county atlas was the county history. These were usually authored by a local antiquarian and sometimes furnished with a county map that came from a county atlas by the same publisher. An example is the Outline Plan of Allegheny County from A History of Allegheny County 1876, published by L. H. Everts & Co, Philadelphia. Also following the county atlas was the city atlas. The first of these was Smedley's Atlas of the City of Philadelphia by Samuel L. Smedley, J. B. Lippencott & Co., Philadelphia 1862, issued just a year after Bridgen's first county atlas.
The State Atlas
On some accounts the first state atlas was State Book of Pennsylvania Containing an Account of the Geography, History, Government, Resources and Noted Citizens of the State; with a Map of the State and of Each County, by Thomas H. Burrowes, published in 1846 by Uriah Hunt & Son, 44 Fourth St., Philadelphia. This book was intended for Pennsylvania schools and had a 4.5 x 7 inch state map at the front and small 2 x 3 inch maps of each county , all uncolored woodcuts, and so could be called a state atlas. However, the first commercial folio atlas was Atlas of Pennsylvania with Descriptions (title page left), by H. F. Walling and O. W. Gray, published by Stedman, Brown & Lyon, Philadelphia in 1872. It contained (table of contents )110 pages with 21 pages of directories, 20 hand colored maps showing all 66 (at that time) counties , ten city maps, a large color map of Pennsylvania and one of the United States, and four state theme maps of which one was Map of Pennsylvania Showing the Principal Deposits of Iron, Anthracite Coal, Petroleum and Zinc. The four theme maps were all lithographs using the same initial template, with the detail particular to each one added on a subsequent printing. To the natural resource industries pictured on this map could be added bituminous coal, glass, aluminum, sand and gravel, and timber. This map is a good way of summarizing the industrial giant that Pennsylvania became in the latter nineteenth century. In fact, oil previously had its own atlas. In 1859 Edwin Drake struck oil just outside Titusville. In 1865, just 6 years later, F. W. Beers published his Atlas of the Oil Region of Pennsylvania (mentioned above), which was an atlas of Venango County with a title selected for sales. Several publishers exploited the interest in the new industry with oil region maps, such as Map of Forrest (sic) County , Pennsylvania, published by R. L. Barnes around 1865, which contained an ad for his other oil region maps.
Five of the classic county atlases published by G. M. Hopkins from 1871 to 1873 contain a large state map showing nine regional divisions followed by a sheaf of the nine regional maps . So these county atlases could be called state atlases also. Hopkins apparently considered them as such, with titles like Atlas of the County of Fayette and the State of Pennsylvania. The other atlases that included these maps were for Butler, Mercer, Lawrence, and Montgomery counties.
At the end of the century came Atlas of the State of Pennsylvania, published by Julius Bien & Co. of New York in 1900. It was patterned after the Walling & Gray atlas and must have been a success because Bien published it again in 1901. This folio atlas contained a large folded-in Railroad and Post Office Map of Pennsylvania, a folded-in United States map, a two page Economic and Geologic Map of Pennsylvania, a one page black & white relief map and a rainfall map, two pages of economic graphics, maps of all the counties (compare with the 1872 county map above), usually with two or three counties per page, and 13 city maps.
The Map as Social Document
P. W. Shaefer created two unusual, interesting, and documentary maps of Pennsylvania. Shaefer was a civil and mining engineer from Pottsville and his mapmaking career included the classic county wall map A Map of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania of 1855, where Pottsville is the county seat. He also made a map of the anthracite coal regions published in 1859. In 1863 he published the first version of his Official Coal, Iron, Railroad and Canal Map of Pennsylvania & C showing state industrial growth and development. Shaefer apparently published this map separately (it bears his copyright), however it was so well received that a copy appeared in the state document Reports of the Several Railroad Companies of Pennsylvania Communicated by the Auditor General to the Legislature, January 22, 1864 (title page right). Unfortunately, it was printed on newsprint and is very fragile. Subsequent versions were published up to around 1870 with slightly different titles for inclusion in the Auditor General's reports. The complete subtitle of the map describes very well what it was all about: "..showing the relative position of the various Anthracite and Bituminous Coal Fields, the Railroads, Canals, and Navigable Waters by which they are connected forming their respective Avenues to Market. Also the Anthracite and Charcoal Furnaces, Rolling Mills, Bloomeries and Forges of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Southern New York, as given in the publications of the American Iron Association. Philada." The total size of the sheet is 30 x 52 inches; the size of the map is 24 x 34 inches. Along the bottom is a six inch table of coal statistics and along the right is an 18 inch strip of additional tables on railroads, furnaces, canals, etc. The map has outline color and the coal fields are shown by cross-hatching. Railroads and canals are indicated and there are symbols for Anthracite Furnaces, Charcoal Furnaces, Rolling Mills, and Forges & Bloomeries. All of New Jersey, northern Maryland and most of Delaware are included.
In 1873 came Shaefer's Historical Map of Pennsylvania, again with a highly descriptive subtitle: "...showing the Indian names of streams, and villages, and paths of travel, the sites of old forts and battlefields, the successive purchases from the Indians, and the names and dates of counties and county towns." This historical map was subsequently published by The Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1875 accompanied by a 28 page booklet listing the information crammed onto the map , which is one of the most informative ever published on the state. It was printed on vellum type paper and surviving copies are generally in decent shape. Documenting the history of Pennsylvania is the full time job of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Founded in 1824 in Philadelphia, it is the largest non-government center for historical research on Pennsylvania, although its emphasis is on the Philadelphia region. The second largest such organization is the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania founded in Pittsburgh in 1879, which covers twenty seven western counties. There are now local historical societies and organizations in every county in the state, as well as in many towns.
Towards the end of the century, bird's-eye-view town maps became popular. A distinction is sometimes made between 'panoramic' maps and 'bird's-eye-view' maps. The panoramic map is a low elevation view showing a town or farmstead as if from a distant hill. They originated in Europe and the idea migrated to America. One of the best known American views is George Heap's An East Prospect of the City of Philadelphia... published in 1753. The year before, 1752, Nicholas Scull and Heap published the more famous A Map of Philadelphia and Parts Adjacent... which contained the first published view of Independence Hall, then known as the Pennsylvania State House. The bird's-eye-view map (although also sometimes called a panoramic map) is an imaginary prospective from way up in the air. These maps provide a view of a town at an oblique angle showing street patterns, individual buildings, and local landmarks. They became very popular in America in the latter nineteenth century and drove mere panoramic views off the market. Thaddeus Fowler produced nearly two hundred bird's-eye-view maps for towns all over Pennsylvania, and he was just one of many such artists. Fowler's 1895 print Penn'a R. R. Car Shops illustrates the main yard (now largely gone) of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona in two combined views. Altoona began circa 1849 as the base camp for the Pennsylvania Railroad as it constructed the Horseshoe Curve and the rest of the line through the Allegheny Front to Johnstown bypassing the Portage Railroad. The mountain ascent (and descent) was hard on early locomotives and the town became the natural site for an engine overhaul yard, which developed into the railroad's biggest facility. Altoona remained synonymous with railroading until the late twentieth century.
Fowler lived in Morrisville, Pennsylvania, and prepared views of towns in at least eighteen states and Canada over a period of more than fifty years. The Pennsylvania State Archives has about 160 of Fowler's Pennsylvania prints. Many of Fowler's personal drawings and documents are in the Library of Congress including about 200 town prints. A compilation from eight repositories has identified 324 views, some multiple views of the same town. Thus, there are turn-of-the-century town view maps for around three hundred Pennsylvania towns and cities, probably more than for any other state. These maps, along with lithograph prints from the classic county atlases, are important visual documentation of the architecture, layout, and look of nineteenth century buildings, farms, villages, towns and cities. With its many town view maps, due largely to Fowler, and its many county atlases, Pennsylvania has an extensive documentation of this type.
Many maps have no cartographic significance, but are reflective of social developments and of the institutions that issue them. C. W. Bardeen of Syracuse published The Geography of Pennsylvania by Jacques W. Redway in 1891. This little 98-page textbook, typical of the time, is interesting for a full-page map titled The Normal School Districts of Pennsylvania on the end page. The map is by 'R., McN. & Co.', that is, Rand McNally. The Normal School Act of 1857 established schools to train teachers, and this map shows that school locations were selected to serve specific regions of the state. The schools eventually became known as State Teacher Colleges and are now called the State System of Higher Education. They have grown over the years until all are now universities. The most famous is Slippery Rock University because of its name, and the largest is Indiana University of Pennsylvania. The three other schools in the west are at Edinboro, Clarion, and California. In the middle of the state are schools at Mansfield, Lockhaven, Bloomsburg, and Shippensburg. In the southeast there are schools at Kutztown, Millersville, Westchester, East Stroudsburg, and Cheney; the latter two not yet planned when this map was made.
Geography books, such as Redway's, are usually the first exposure children have to maps. There were many authors and publishers of these textbooks in the latter nineteenth century, including the Mitchells, Coltons, S. G. Goodrich (under the pseudonym of Peter Parley), Francis McNally (who was not the Rand partner, that was Andrew), Cornell, Lovell, Guyot, Montieth, Swinton, Appleton, Harper, Butler, Warren, and Frye. All the books were much alike, with regional maps of the United States and various continent and country maps. Different versions were printed for different age groups with titles like 'elementary' or 'intermediate'. Although Redway's book was intended solely for Pennsylvania, general geography books were often customized for a particular state. They would say 'Pennsylvania Edition,' for example, on the cover and contain an addendum with state information and usually a double page state map.
Since maps could be cheaply prepared, they became an integral part of government and industry publications and reports. As mentioned above, the Shaefer map was included in the Auditor General's annual reports. Another offbeat example is the map Hospital Districts for Insane in Pennsylvania from Fourteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Lunacy to the Board of Public Charities of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the year ending September 30, 1896. The report is a booklet of about 30 pages and attached to the back are 6 full-page maps, showing the state divided into 5 hospital districts. The other five maps are of the districts themselves, such as the South-Western Hospital District . The maps are at small scale with little detail, but great color. The Committee on Lunacy (1883), the Board of Public Charities (1869), the Mothers' Assistance Fund (1913), and the Prison Labor Commission (1915), all good descriptive names for government services, were consolidated into the modern, bureaucratic, and nondescript Department of Welfare in 1921.
Next to government, religion is the most important social force around and also needs maps occasionally. The Baptist Map of Pennsylvania, by Horace R. Goodchild, was issued free by the Pennsylvania Baptist Missionary Society, and dated January 1899, in text at the bottom. With a name like that, Horace had to become a minister. This uncommon religious map shows the location of Baptist churches (the little black dots); rail lines are also shown. Baptists are numerous in Pennsylvania, but not the dominant sect. The largest Protestant sect in the state is the Methodists, and the Roman Catholic Church is the single largest denomination.
Not all maps were for serious purposes, as the tiny three-by-five inch trading card map Pennsylvania from a package of Arbuckle's coffee shows. Decorative vignettes showing oil drilling, oil refining, coal processing and steel manufacture surround the map; the verso has text. This card was one of fifty issued for all the states and territories. In 1868 John Arbuckle Jr. of Allegheny City (now part of Pittsburgh) filed a patent stating: 'The nature of my invention consists in roasting coffee and then coating it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter, for the purpose of retaining the aroma of the coffee, and also act as a clarifying-agent when the ground coffee has been boiled in water.' Arbuckle went on to become the greatest coffee roaster of his generation and the creator of the first national brand, Ariosa, and he was also one of the richest men in America during the Gilded Age. He moved the coffee roasting operations to New York in the 1870s while brother Charles maintained the Pittsburgh business. The egg and sugar glaze which sealed flavor in the beans made Arbuckle's Ariosa Coffee a favorite of cowboys and it was called 'the coffee that won the west'.
One of the consequences of the success of railroads in the nineteenth century was a neglect of highways (seen at left). The Federal government turned the old National Road over to the states around 1840 and provided no more funds for roads until the twentieth century. The state government essentially forgot about roads and repair was left to the counties. In most counties, it was left to the townships. And in some townships, it was left to the farmer to get product to the nearest rail line by wagon and horse over ruts, mud or dust. Commercial business was concentrated in towns and cities with rail lines, and getting a rail line through to your town was the biggest task confronting local politicians, just like getting an Interstate highway or airport is today.
Bicycle maps preceded automobile road maps, and when automobilists began to venture out on the highway, they had the bicyclists to thank for the few good roads around. The modern chain-driven bicycle was developed around 1880 and riding bicycles became all the rage. Early road improvements were made at the instigation of bicyclists and the 'Good Roads' movement, begun by the League of American Wheelmen (L.A.W). Prior to 1895, the demand for road maps came from bicyclists and the League published separate bicycle guides for states. The Road Book (title page right) of 1893 was compiled by members of the Road Book Committee of the Pennsylvania Division, L.A.W., and was the seventh edition of a guide originating in the mid-1880's.
From circa 1895-1905, motorists and bicyclists vied for control of the roads and from 1905 on the car won out. The first automobile road map in the United States is generally credited to the Chicago Times-Herald newspaper, which printed a route map in 1895 for a race they sponsored from Chicago to Waukegan.  The same year the town of Canonsburg sponsored a bicycle race with a printed booklet and map titled Second Annual Road Race. Systematic mapping of Pennsylvania roads and the installation of route signs by the state government did not occur until well into the twentieth century when automobiles became numerous. So, the story of the road map is really one for the twentieth century.
 Ristow, W. W., American Maps and Mapmakers, Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century, Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1985, p. 282. This is an excellent reference for the history of nineteenth century map-making in the United States and is noted frequently here. The map 'Barton on the Catskills' is reproduced as plate 4.7 in Five Centuries of Map Printing, University of Chicago Press, 1975, edited by David Woodward, see note 5 below.
 Tatum, David, The Lithographic Workshop, 1825-50, Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 105(1) 1995, pp 71-79.
 Ristow, p. 295.
 Woodward, David, The All-American Map: Wax Engraving and Its Influence on Cartography, The University of Chicago Press 1977, pp. 11-50.
 A good summary of map printing is given in Five Centuries of Map Printing, University of Chicago Press, 1975, edited by David Woodward. See also note 4 above on wax engraving. It can be difficult to discern if a map has been printed from a copper or steel engraved plate, a lithographic or wax engraving process. Some people in the trade claim to be able to tell the difference using a magnifying glass or by noting paper impressions such as press marks.
 Long, J. H. (Ed), Pennsylvania Atlas of Historical County Boundaries, Charles Scribner's Sons, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, New York 1996. This is a project of the Newberry Library which intends to compile similar volumes for all states.
 Burgess, G. H. & Kennedy, M. C., Centennial History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 1846 - 1946, The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Philadelphia 1949, p. 11.
 Dickens, Charles, American Notes, originally published in the 1840s after Dickens' returned from his trip to America in 1842. There are many modern editions, i.e. The Modern Library edition.
 Alexander, E. P., The Pennsylvania Railroad: A Pictorial History, Bonanza Books, New York 1947, p.16.
 Moak, Jefferson, Publishing's Third Field: A History of Map Publishing in Philadelphia During the 19th Century, 1982, p. 17.
 Ristow, p. 325.
 Willard, Bradford, Pioneer Geologic Investigation in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania History 1965, 32(3), pp. 236-253. For a short discussion of the Holme maps, see Placing Pennsylvania on the Map: The Seventeenth Century on this website.
 Willard, Ibid.
 Ristow, p. 115.
 For the existing wall maps, see Phillips, P. L., A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress, Government Printing Office, Washington 1901; Phillips, P. L., A Descriptive List of Maps and Views of Philadelphia in the Library of Congress, 1683-1865, Government Printing Office, Washington 1926; Stephenson, R. W., Land Ownership Maps - A Checklist of Nineteenth Century United States County Maps in the Library of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington 1967; Simonetti, M. L., Descriptive List of the Map Collection in The Pennsylvania State Archives, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg 1976. The State Archives maintains a current listing of holdings, including those acquired since 1976, at their Internet site. The LOC is slowly cataloging all its maps, but many older maps do not yet appear in Internet searchable catalogs. See Early County Map List on this website for a list of county wall maps from this period.
 McElfresh, E. B., Maps and Mapmakers of the Civil War, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York 1999, p.139.
 The Adams County map and one by Jedidiah Hotchkiss can be found in the McElfresh book noted above along with others. The map from Jacobs has often been reproduced in histories and articles. A book by Michael Sharpe, Historical Maps of Civil War Battlefields, PRC Publishing Limited, London 2000, contains reproductions of the battlefield maps of John Bachelder prepared in the 1870s. Also, see Symonds, C. L. & Clipson, W. J., Gettysburg: A Battlefield Atlas, Nautical & Aviation Pub. Co. of America, 1992.
 The county wall map and atlas, and the practice of land ownership mapping, are all tied together. See Couzen, M. P. The All-American County Atlas: Styles of Commercial Landownership Mapping and American Culture, a chapter in Images of the World: The Atlas Through History, Wolter, J. A. & Grim, R. E. (Eds), McGraw-Hill 1997. The closest modern equivalent of the classic county atlas is the county plat book, published by commercial vendors with advertising. Plat books for Pennsylvania counties are available from Rockford Map Publishers, Inc., 4525 Forest View Avenue, Rockford, IL 61125.
 This conclusion is based upon the listings in LeGear, C. E., United States Atlases, A List of National, State, County, City, and Regional Atlases in the Library of Congress, The Library of Congress, Washington 1950. The current LOC catalog, the Pennsylvania State Archives, and several libraries were also checked. The listings in LeGear appear to be complete for nineteenth century Pennsylvania county atlases; however they are not complete for city atlases. See County Atlas List and Atlas Sampler on this website.
 The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission maintains a list of historical societies at its Internet site. Also, the Pennsylvania Federation of Museums and Historical Organizations has an Internet site which lists all of the member organizations.
 For discussion of this subject, see: Reps, John W., Views and Viewmakers of Urban America, subtitled - Lithographs of Towns and Cities in the United States and Canada, Notes on the Artists and Publishers, and a Union Catalog of their Work, 1825 - 1925. A list of Library of Congress holdings can be found using the search engine at their Internet site for Panoramic Maps. The Pennsylvania State Archives Fowler holdings are listed as item 567 in Manuscript Group 11. A short biography of Fowler is given in Ries, L. A., Pennsylvania Places Through the Bird's-eye Views of T. M. Fowler, Pennsylvania Heritage 21(1) 1995.
 Stout, L. J., Pennsylvania Town Views, 1850-1922: A Union Catalogue, The Western Pennsylvania Magazine, 58 (July, October 1975), 59 (January 1976).
 The Atlas of Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, Philadelphia 1989, pp. 142-143.
 United States Patent Office, John Arbuckle, Jr., Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. Letters Patent No. 73,486, dated January 21, 1868.
 Fugate, Francis, Arbuckles - The Coffee that Won the West, Texas Western Press, El Paso 1994.
 Ristow, W. W., American Road Maps and Guides, The Scientific Monthly, May 1946, pp. 397-406.
Copyright 2003 by Harold Cramer. All rights reserved.