WELCOME References for Historical Maps of Pennsylvania WELCOME

The references below are cited in the map descriptions. Most of these references contain bibliographies that can be consulted for further sources on maps in general, as well as maps of Pennsylvania. For a general (though now dated) bibliography, see Wolter below. For listings of Internet sites on maps and cartography in general, see Map History / History of Cartography.


Acrelius, Israel, Beskrifning om de swenska församlingars forna och närwarande tilstånd, 1759. Translated by W. M. Reynolds as A History of New Sweden and published by The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1874.

Adler, M. J. (Ed.), The Annals of America, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 1968. This is an 18 volume collection of historical writings on America starting with Columbus and continuing up to the date of publication, and contains reproductions, including maps, from historical documents.

Alsop, George, A character of the province of Maryland, originally published in 1666; reprinted from the original edition with introduction and notes by Newton D. Mereness, The Burrows Brothers Company, Cleveland 1902.

Babinski, Mark, The Sad Story of Attorneys & Government vs. Mapmakers or The Answer to the Question: Why were so few copies of the 1822, 1824 and 1825 editions of John Melish's 'Map of Pennsylvania' published? MapForum Issue 9, Spring 2006.

Baer, Christoper T., Canals and Railroads of the Mid-Atlantic States 1800-1860, Regional Economic History Research Center, Eleutherian Mills-Hagley Foundation 1981. This academic study is one of the best sources seen for concise information, in the form of tables and maps, on its subject.

Black, Jeannette D. (Ed.), The Blathwayt Atlas, Volume I: The Maps, Volume II: Commentary, Brown University Press, Providence 1970,1975. William Blathwayt was secretary for the Committee of the Lords of Trade and Plantations during the late 17th century. His surviving collection of colonial maps is now called the Blathwayt Atlas and was reproduced by the John Carter Brown Library, which has the original, with commentary by Black.

Brown, Lloyd, Early Maps of the Ohio Valley, University of Pittsburgh Press 1959. This book contains black and white reproductions and facsimiles of 54 maps dating from 1673 to 1783 which show the Ohio River valley. Most show western Pennsylvania and a few show the entire state. A short essay accompanies each map. This book is now on line at Historic Pittsburgh.

Burden, Philip, The Mapping of North America, Raleigh Publications, England 1996. This large cartobibliography contains black and white reproductions of (almost) all printed North American maps up to 1670. A companion volume, The Mapping of North America II, was published in 2007 covering the period 1671-1700, and continues the map numbering sequence begun in the earlier volume. Although it does not pertain to Pennsylvania, a similar book for world maps is The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700 by Rodney Shirley, Sterling 1998.

Burton, Arthur G. and Stephenson, Richard W., John Ballendine's Eighteenth-Century Map of Virginia. Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress, July 1964. Reprinted in A La Carte - Selected Papers on Maps and Atlases, Walter W. Ristow (Ed.), Library of Congress, Washington 1972.

Cain, Mead, The Maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: A Publishing History, Imago Mundi, Vol. 46 (1994), pp. 151-167. Authoritative article on the publishing of the maps, which were steel plate engravings.

Canada Library and Archives: The National Archives of Canada has a large collection of old maps, especially French colonial ones, that include the Pennsylvania region.

Colden, Cadwallader, The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada: which are dependent on the province of New York, and are a barrier between the English and the French in that part of the world, originally printed in London 1750, reprinted by Morang, Toronto 1902. Though Colden was a New York official, this two volume work contains much original material on Pennsylvania and a map Colden originally prepared in the 1720's.

Colles, Christopher, A Survey of the Roads of the United States 1789, reprinted by Belknap Press 1961 and edited by W. W. Ristow. This biography of Colles has a reproduction with comment of his original book which is the first American road guide. It was modeled after the English road guides of the 18th century and used maps prepared during the Revolutionary War under Washington's orders. Along the same line, T. W. Jones and S. S. Moore created The Traveller's Directory, or A Pocket Companion, published by Mathew Carey, Philadelphia, in 1802, 1804.

Corcoran, Irma, Thomas Holme, 1624-1695, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Vol. 200, 1992. For an earlier biography on Holme, see Hough.

Cumming, W. P., The Southeast in Early Maps, Princeton University Press, 1958. This well known reference has little on Pennsylvania; reprinted in a new edition in 1998 from the University of North Carolina Press.

Cumming, W. P., Skelton, R. A., Quinn, D. B., Discovery of North America, American Heritage Press, New York 1972. This popular history is more scholarly than similar publications because of (translated) excerpts from journals. It also contains reproductions of some manuscript maps not seen elsewhere. There is another volume from the same authors titled Exploration of North America.

Cummings, H. M., The Mason and Dixon Line, Story for a Bicentenary 1763-1963, Department of Internal Affairs, Commonwealth of Pennsyvania 1962. The Journal of Mason & Dixon was reprinted by the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1969.

Cummings, H. M., Nicholas Scull, Department of Internal Affairs Monthly Bulletin, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, vol. 30, #7 & #8, July & August 1962.

Day, Sherman, Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania..., published by George W. Gorton, Philadelphia 1843; reprinted by Ira J. Friedman, Inc., Port Washington, New York 1969. This book is "a copious selection of the most interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc." as the subtitle says. It also has 165 woodcuts of town and building views, many of which show old courthouses.

Docktor, J. W., Seutter/Lotter Map of Pensylvania Nova Jersey et Nova York, The Portolan, Journal of the Washington Map Society , No. 26, 1993.

Docktor, J. W., Nicholas and William Scull of Pennsylvania,The Portolan, Journal of the Washington Map Society, No. 33, 1995.

Dunlap, A. R., A Checklist of Seventeenth-Century Maps Relating to Delaware, Delaware Notes 18 (1945), pp. 63-76. Some of the dates given by Dunlap differ from more recent references like Burden and McCorkle.

Ford, Worthington C., The First Separate Map of Pennsylvania, Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, October 1923-June 1924, vol. 57, pp. 172-183. Ford apparently uncovered the fact that the 1681 Thornton-Seller map was the first one of the state. He found it in the Blathwayt Atlas around 1923 and wrote this article on it.

Egle, Wm. H., An Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Civil, Political and Military...Historical Descriptions of Each County In The State, Harrisburg: De Witt C. Goodrich & Co. 1876, 1877; also published by E. M. Gardner, Philadelphia 1880, 1883. A general state history with maps and illustrations. Egle was also an editor of the Pennsylvania Archives Series.

Eavenson, Howard N., Map Maker & Indian Traders..., University of Pittsburgh Press, 1949. An account of three people on the western frontier circa 1750 including John Patten, an Indian trader who made an influential manuscript map of the Ohio country including western Pennsylvania. See also Who Made the Trader's Map? in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,Vol. 65, Philadelphia,1941, pp. 420-438.

Fite, Emerson D. & Freeman, Archibald, A Book of Old Maps, Delineating American History From the Earliest Days Down to the Close of the Revolutionary War, Harvard University Press 1926, reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, in 1969. This book is one of the best map histories, and includes a short essay with each map.

Garrison, Harriet S., Cartography of Pennsylvania before 1800, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1935) pp. 255-283. A summary of important Pennsylvania maps.

General Drafting Co., Of Maps and Mapping, (self published) 1959. This is a promotional book describing General Drafting's business with some history of road maps.

Gipson, Lawrence, Lewis Evans, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1939. This biography of Evans contains reproductions of his important maps and the text of his 'Brief Account of Pennsylvania' and 'Analysis of a General Map of the Middle British Colonies.'

Godcharles, F. A., Pennsylvania: Political, Governmental, Military and Civil, The American Historical Society, New York 1933. This is a multi-volume general state history.

Guthorn, Peter, American Maps and Map Makers of the Revolution, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, NJ 1966. This cartobibliography is valuable for its listing of obscure manuscript maps and biographical information on the map makers. Also, from the same author and publisher, British Maps of the American Revolution, 1972.

Hanna, Charles A., The Wilderness Trail; or, the ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny Path, with some new annals of the old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones, G. P. Putnam Sons, New York 1911. This two volume work has several black & white reproductions of old maps, unfortunately rather poor ones. This book is now on line at Historic Pittsburgh Full-Text Collection Vol. 1 , Vol. 2 .

Hayes, Derek, Historical Atlas of the United States, University of California Press, Berkeley 2007. A large book with many color map images illustrating United States history.

Heritage Map Museum, The Map Collector Library Series Antique Map Reference CD-ROMS 2000 & 2001. These CDs are a collection of images and descriptions for maps auctioned over the last several years up to 2001 by the Heritage Map Museum, Lititz, PA.

Hoskins, Donald M., Celebrating a Century and a Half - The Geologic Survey, pp. 26-31, Pennsylvania Heritage 12(3), 1986. The First Geological Survey began in the 1830's and ended in 1858, the Second ended c1895, the Third ended in 1915 with publication of all the U. S. Geological Survey quadrants for the state. The Fourth is still going on, see Pennsylvania Geological Survey.

Hough, Oliver, Captain Thomas Holme, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania and Provincial Councillor,Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 19,20 (1895,1896) pp. 413-427,248-256. Also see Corcoran above.

Hulbert, A. B., Historic Highways of America, first published 1902-05 in Cleveland, reprinted by AMS Press Inc., New York 1971. This is a multi-volume pre-automobile history of highways written in an old-fashioned romantic style. It contains reproductions of several old maps.

Hulbert, A. B., The Crown Collection of Photographs of American Maps, The Arthur H. Clarke Co., Cleveland 1907. This is a five volume set of photographs of manuscript maps held in the Crown Collections of the British Library. There are about 15 regional maps of Pennsylvania, most dating from the 1750's, and some of them reproduced in Brown. This collection is now online at The Crown Collection.

Jenkins, Howard M. (Ed.), Pennsylvania: Colonial and Federal: A History 1608-1903, Pennsylvania Historical Publishing Association, Philadelphia 1903. This 3 volume history contains many illustrations and autographs and is superior in some ways to more recent histories of the state.

Jesuit Relations, a compilation of reports sent by Jesuit missionaries in New France (Canada) to the home office from circa 1610 until the 18th century. Some maps are included. English editions have been prepared for various purposes. One of the most complete was published as The Jesuit relations and allied documents, Burrows Bros. Co., Cleveland 1896-1901, 73 volumes; which has been placed on the Internet at The Jesuit Relations: Index.

Johnson, Adrian, America Explored: A cartographic history of the exploration of North America, Viking Press, New York 1974. This is a large format book with many black and white reproductions of old maps, also filled with illustrations from old books.

Johnson, Amandus, The Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1664, International Printing Co., Philadelphia 1927. This is an abridgement of the original 2 volume work The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware, their History and Relation to the Indians, Dutch and English, University of Pennsylvania, D. Appleton & Co., New York 1911; also published by the Swedish Colonial Society, Philadelphia 1911.

Kane, Harriet F., Notes on Early Pennsylvania Promotion Literature, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 63 (1939) pp. 144-167. This article gives a conjectured order of publication for Penn's promotional literature, but does not reproduce it.

Kansky, K. J., Augustine Herman: The Leading Cartographer of the Seventeenth Century, Maryland Historical Magazine 73(4), 1978, pp352-359.

Klinefelter, Walter, Surveyor General Thomas Holme's 'Map of the Improved Part of the Province of Pennsylvania,' in Doud, Richard K. & Quimby, Ian M.G. (Ed.), Winterthur Portfolio 6, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1970, pp. 41-74.

Klinefelter, Walter, Lewis Evans and His Maps, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series Vol. 61, Part 7, July 1971 Paperback. 4to. 65pp.

Kraus, H. P. (Pub.), Monumenta Cartographica - Catalogue 124, New York, circa 1960. This appears to be a sales or exhibition catalog with detailed descriptions of about thirty very old maps and atlases. The only map of interest for Pennsylvania is a circa 1610 manuscript map of the Chesapeake Bay area.

LeGear, Clara. E. (Ed.), United States Atlases. A List of National, State, County, City, and Regional Atlases in the Library of Congress, compiled by Clara Egli LeGear, 445 pages, Vol. I 1950, Vol. II 1953; reprinted c1999 by Martino Fine Books, Mansfield Centre, CT. This well known reference lists US atlases in the Library of Congress published between 1776 and 1950 by region and author. LeGear also extended Phillips' A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress to 9 volumes (see Phillips below).

Lindstrom (or Lindestrom), Peter Martensson, Geographia Americae, with an account of the Delaware Indians, based on surveys and notes made in 1654-1656, translated by Amandus Johnson, The Swedish Historical Society, Philadelphia 1925. Lindstrom left this account in manuscript when he died in 1691. Material from Lindstrom/Johnson used here is courtesy of the Darlington Memorial Library, Pittsburgh.

Lister, Raymond, How to Identify Old Maps and Globes, G. Bell, London 1965. The book includes an extensive list of cartographers and engravers and the names of their major works and an appendix on old paper watermarks.

Lobeck, Armin K., Things Maps Don't Tell Us - An Adventure into Map Interpretation, Macmillan 1956, reprinted by the University of Chicago 1993 and subsequently. A minor cartographic classic. Using both text and illustration, the author explains how terrain features seen on a map are the result of dynamic geology. This book is all the more impressive when one realizes it was written before the plate tectonics paradigm and satellite images.

Long, J. H. (Ed.), Pennsylvania: Atlas of Historical County Boundaries, Scribners 1996. A complete history of county creation and boundary changes within the state illustrated with outline maps, also contains a useful bibliography. This volume is part of a general project covering other states also and has a website: The Newberry Library - Atlas of Historical County Boundaries .

Lorant, Stefan (Ed.), The New World: The First Pictures of America, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York 1946, 1965. This is a complete reprinting of images from Theodore de Bry's publications of 1590 and 1591 including maps. For the real thing, Dover published a facsimile edition in 1972 of de Bry's 1590 publication which included A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia by Thomas Harriot, The True Pictures and Fashions of the People in That Part of America Now Called Virginia by Richard Hacklvit with John White's illustrations, plus some additional material.

Manasek, F. J., Collecting Old Maps, Terra Nova Press 1998. Practical advice on map collecting along with black and white reproductions of old maps.

MapForum.Com , an Internet site devoted to maps. Although now a printed journal sold by subscription, the first 15 issues are accessible on the web.

Marshall, D. W. & Peckham, H. H., Campaigns of the American Revolution: an atlas of manuscript maps, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1976. There are several maps covering General Sir William Howe's campaign to capture Philadelphia, including a map of Valley Forge probably prepared by a British spy. See also Nebenzahl below.

Martin, A. E. & Shenk, H. H. (Eds.), Pennsylvania History Told by Contemporaries, The Macmillan Company, New York 1925. This is a compilation of 241 original documents (or excerpts) dating from 1624 (the authorization of a Swedish colony by King Gustavus Adolphus) to 1923.

Maryland State Archives: This website contains few map images, but the written description for the maps in the collection is very good. Many of the colonial maps show southern Pennsylvania or the east coast.

Mathews, E. B., History of the Boundary Dispute Between the Baltimores and Penns Resulting in the Original Mason and Dixon Line. This history is contained in Report on the Resurvey of the Maryland-Pennsylvania Boundary, part of the Mason and Dixon Line, Department of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg Publishing Co., State Printer, Harrisburg 1909. It contains reproductions of several maps important to the boundary dispute, and a chronological history of the dispute which lists several maps. A somewhat similar book on the Pennsylvania-New York boundary is Report of the Regents' Boundary Commission upon the New York and Pennsylvania Boundary, New York State Senate No. 71, 1886; also with many folded maps.

McCorkle, Barbara B., New England in Early Printed Maps 1513 to 1800, The John Carter Brown Library, Providence 2001. A large cartobibliography along the lines of Burden, this book lists about 800 maps and illustrates about half of them in black and white.

McElfresh, Earl B., Maps and Mapmakers of the Civil War, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York 1999. This book describes map making during the war period with color reproductions of many maps, including one of Adams County, Pennsylvania, published in 1858. This map was the most detailed one available of the Gettysburg region during the battle and became the Civil War's most famous county map.

Mercator Society Publication Number One, English Mapping of America 1675-1715, The New York Public Library 1986. This small monograph contains reproductions and discussion by various authors of about 20 interesting maps from the period given in the title.

Michalski, S., The Samuel Goodrich Collection , an internet article from the University of Pittsburgh 1999, with a short biography of Goodrich and a list of his Peter Parley books.

Modelski, A. M., Railroad Maps of North America: The First Hundred Years, Library of Congress, United States Government Printing Office 1984. This book contains a selection of early railroad maps from the LOC collections.

Munger, Donna B., Pennsylvania Land Records: A History and Guide for Research, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Scholarly Resources, Inc., Wilmington 1991. This paperback is an excellent source of information on Pennsylvania archival land records.

Munroe, J. A., & Dann, J. C., Benjamin Eastburn, Thomas Noxon, and the Earliest Map of the Lower Counties, Delaware History 21 (1985), pp. 217-232. The original and a clearer facsimile of the subject map of Delaware are shown. The map does not include anything of present day Pennsylvania.

Myers Jr., J. P., The New Way to the Forks of the Ohio: Reflections on John Pott's Map of 1758, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. CXXII No. 4 (1998) pp 385-410.

Myers Jr., J. P., Mapping Pennsylvania's Western Frontier in 1756, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. CXXIII No. 1 (1999) pp 3-29.

Nebenzahl, Kenneth & Higginbotham, Don, Atlas of the American Revolution, Rand McNally, Chicago 1974. Many of the maps here are from William Faden's North American Atlas of 1777 and subsequent work, see also Marshall & Peckham.

O'Callaghan, E. B.(Ed.), A Documentary History of the State of New York, 3 volumes, Albany 1849. O'Callaghan was also general editor of Documents relative to the colonial history of the state of New-York, Weed, Parsons and Company, Albany 1853-87, 15 volumes; volume 12 pertains to Delaware River settlement.

Papenfuse, E. C. & Coale III, J. M., The Hammond-Harwood House Atlas of Historical Maps of Maryland, 1608-1908, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1982. This is an overview of Maryland maps, many of which include southern Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania State Archives and Library: The State Archives are the principal resource on state history and are part of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission ( PHMC ). Most readily accessible are the published Pennsylvania Archives Series, consisting of 10 series, each of many volumes. These are available at libraries around the state. The second and third series 1885-95, edited by W. H. Egle among others, are the ones containing reproductions of many historically significant Pennsylvania maps. The Commonwealth Libraries operate separately from the Archives and are also a principal resource on state history.

Peters, Harry T., America on stone; the other printmakers to the American people; a chronicle of American lithography other than that of Currier & Ives, from its beginning, shortly before 1820, to the years when the commercial single-stone hand-colored lithograph disappeared from the American scene, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., Garden City, N.Y. c1931. This is an alphabetical list of nineteenth century American lithographers including some prints; it is not inclusive nor focussed on maps.

Phillips, P. L., A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress, Washington, G. P. O. 1901; reprinted in 1967 by Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd., Amsterdam. This is the best known reference book on Library of Congress maps, but now superceded by the LOC online catalog. Phillips published a similar work on atlases in the LOC in 1909 that was extended to 9 volumes by LeGear in 1958. He also published A Descriptive List of Maps and Views of Philadelphia in the Library of Congress, 1683-1865, in 1926.

Portinaro, P. & Knirsch, F., The Cartography of North America 1500-1800, Facts on File, Inc., New York, 1987. This book has color images of many old maps, includes Italian map makers.

Pritchard, M. B. & Taliaferro, H. G., Degrees of Latitude: Mapping Colonial America, Henry N. Abrams, New York 2002. This is a large book with many very good map images in color. It has two parts, the first a numbered list of maps in the Colonial Williamsburg Collection, the second a numbered list of maps in the Custis Atlas, part of the collection.

Quattrocchi, Anna Margaret, Thomas Hutchins, 1730-1789, Phd. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1944. Although Hutchins is mentioned in many histories, this is the only known biography.

Ristow, Walter W., American Road Maps and Guides, The Scientific Monthly, May 1946, pp 397-406.

Ristow, Walter W., American Maps and Mapmakers - Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century, Wayne State University Press, Detroit 1985. A well known history with many map reproductions, it draws on journal articles published by Ristow over the years.

Rose, Albert C., Historic American Roads: from frontier trails to superhighways, Crown Publishers, New York 1976. This is a colorful history of highways. Rose wrote articles for American Highways magazine under the pen name of The Old Road Builder.

Rosenberger, Homer, Early Maps of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania History 11 (1944) p103-117. This short summary follows Garrison with more discussion of Holmes' maps.

Russ, William A., Pennsylvania's Boundaries, Pennsylvania Historical Studies: No. 8, The Pennsylvania Historical Association, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 1966. This monograph discusses the politics and practical problems connected with establishing the state boundaries.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Penn State University Libraries. This is a website with the mission of putting all the Sanborn maps of Pennsylvania towns and cities on the Internet. Sanborn is the best known publisher of fire insurance maps and started in 1867. The copyright on these maps is religiously protected and only ones older than 90 years can usually be seen. There are several websites that present these maps but they usually required a membership and/or fee.

Schwartz, S. I. & Ehrenberg, R. E., The Mapping of America, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York 1990. Large book with many map images, reprinted in 2000.

Schwartz, S. I., The French and Indian War 1754-1763. Castle Books, Edison, NJ 1994. A short summary of the war accompanied by many map reproductions.

Schwartz, S. I., This Land is Your Land - The Geographic Evolution of the United States, Harry N. Abrams, New York 2000. This large book is similar to the Schwartz & Ehrenberg book, but with just United States maps and especially the 'first' map of each state as it entered the union.

Scull, G. D., Genealogical Notes Relating to the Family of Scull, private impression, 1876 in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Fa, 929.2, S437s, 1876). Nicholas Scull was Surveyor of Pennsylvania, and his grandson William was also a mapmaker.

Sellers, J. R. & Van Ee, P. M. (Eds.), Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 1750-1789; A Guide to the Collections in the Library of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington 1981; reprinted by Martino Publishing, Mansfield Centre, CT 1999. This listing essentially replaces (or augments) Phillips for the period covered.

Shirk Jr., Willis L.(Ed.), Documenting Pennsylvania's Past The first century of the Pennsylvania Archives, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg 2003. A paperback with some history of the archives and many good quality reproductions of its holdings, including some maps.

Simonetti, M. L. (Compiler), Kent, D. H. & Whipkey, H. E. (Eds.), Descriptive List of the Map Collection in the Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1976. A list of map holdings by the state, see the Pennsylvania State Archives above. The Archives maintains this finding aid at their website which includes maps added to the collection since 1976.

Smith, H. & Swetnam, G., A Guidebook to Historic Western Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh Press 2nd Ed. 1991. A travelogue describing historical sites and structures in Western Pennsylvania, whose extent is defined from the eastern line of McKean, Cameron, Clearfield, Blair and Bedford counties west. The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania uses this definition but adds Potter County for a total of 27 counties of the 67 in the state.

Smith, Murphy D., Realms of Gold: A Catalogue of the Maps in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, vol. 195, 1991. Numerous Pennsylvania maps are in the collections; this reference is now on line at American Philosophical Society .

Smith, Thomas, The Mapping of Ohio, Kent State University Press 1977. This summary of Ohio mapping also contains a list of the Ohio 19th century county atlases, which number over a hundred as Ohio has a plethora of counties.

Snyder, John P., The Mapping of New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey 1973.

Snyder, Martin P., City of Independence, Views of Philadelphia Before 1800, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1975. Besides many views of buildings and streets, this book also includes reproductions of most of the early maps of Philadelphia.

Soderlund, Jean R. (Ed.), Dunn, R. S. & M. M. (Gen. Eds.), William Penn and the founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684: A Documentary History, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1983. This book contains reprints (in modern text) of 101 original documents associated with Penn during the period when Pennsylvania was founded, including the original Charter of Pennsylvania. It is part of a series of volumes titled The Papers of William Penn.

Stevens, B. F., B. F. Stevens' facsimiles of manuscripts in European archives relating to America, 1773-1783. With descriptions, editorial notes, collations, references and translations; originally published in 1889, reprinted by Mellifont Press, Inc., Wilmington 1970; AMS Press, New York 1977. This collection has 25 portfolios with index, and few maps.

Stephenson, R. W., Land Ownership Maps - A Checklist of Nineteenth Century United States County Maps in the Library of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington 1967. Most of the classic county wall maps are listed here under the entries for Pennsylvania.

Stephenson, R. W. & McKee, M. M. (Eds.), Virginia in Maps - Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development, Library of Virginia, Richmond 2000. A large coffee table book with almost 200 map reproductions, including some of the usual suspects and many of the unusual. Some maps not usually found in map histories show Pennsylvania, in particular the 1778 map of Thomas Hutchins.

Stokes, I. N. Phelps, The Iconography of Manhattan Island 1498-1909, 6 volumes, R. H. Dodd, New York 1915-28. Reprinted in 1967 by Arno Press, New York. Material from Stokes used here is courtesy of the Darlington Memorial Library, Pittsburgh. This is probably the most complete reference available for mid-17th century maps (mostly Dutch) of the Pennsylvania region.

Stotz, Charles Morse, Outposts of the War for Empire, The French and English in Western Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People 1749-1764, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh Press 1985. This large format book reproduces many manuscript maps and plans of frontier forts from the French & Indian War period. The last chapter is a description of the modern reconstruction of Fort Ligonier.

Stout, L. J., Pennsylvania Town Views, 1850-1922: A Union Catalogue, The Western Pennsylvania Magazine, 58 (July, October 1975), 59 (January 1976). Stout lists 324 town views, a few more have been uncovered since. The Library of Congress collection of Pennsylvania panoramic town maps, all 205 of them, is on display at Panoramic Maps Collection along with those from other states. A more comprehensive catalogue of town views is Reps, John W., Views and Viewmakers of Urban America: Lithographs of Towns and Cities in the United States and Canada, Notes on the Artists and Publishers, and a Union Catalog of their work, 1825 - 1925, University of Missouri Press, 1984. Reps lists 433 views of Pennsylvania towns though many have multiple views, for example, over 40 views of Philadelphia.

Swift, Michael, Historical Maps of the United States, PRC Publishing Ltd, London 1998. Swift is a pseudonym for the author who has published several books of similar title reproducing maps from the Public Record Office. Many of the same maps appear in Historical Maps of North America, PRC Publishing Ltd, London 2001. The map reproductions in these books are fairly good, but unfortunately there is no information on the maps themselves, except that they are held at the Public Record Office (now known as The National Archives ).

Thompson, Edmund, Maps of Connecticut before the year 1800 (1940) and Maps of Connecticut 1801-1860 (1942). These two volumes by Thompson were combined and reprinted in 1995 by G.B. Manasek, Inc., Norwich, Vermont.

Thompson, E. V., A Brief History of Major Oil Companies in the Gulf Region. The title refers to the Persian Gulf. This is an Internet article from the University of Virginia 1998 containing a thumbnail history of many oil companies that distributed road maps.

Tooley, R. V. (Ed.) The Mapping of America, Holland Press, London 1985. All of the monographs which appeared in Tooley's The Map Collector's Circle pertaining to North America were gathered together and published in this volume. A complete list of all the monographs is given at MapForum.Com , Issue 5. The chapters of interest for Pennsylvania mapping are: 1) French Mapping of the Americas by R. V. Tooley; 2) Comparative Cartography by Henry Stevens and Roland Tree; 4) Smith's Virginia and its Derivatives by Coolie Verner; 6) North American City Plans by R. V. Tooley; 8) The Jansson-Visscher Maps of New England by Tony Campbell; 10) The Mapping of the Great Lakes by R. V. Tooley.

USDOT, America's Highways 1776-1976, U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 1977. This 500 plus page tome is the best one volume history available for Federal involvement in roads. Highway building is glorified and the modern detrimental effects ignored.

Vail, R. W. G., The Voice of the Old Frontier, Thomas Yoseloff, Inc., New York 1949. This reference contains a bibliography of North American frontier original journals and books. Works containing maps are noted.

Van Erman, E., The United States in Old Maps and Prints, published in the United States by Atomium Books, Wilmington 1990, and distributed by Rand McNally. This large format book contains superb color images of many old maps.

Verner, Coolie, A Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot The Fourth Book with special reference to the charts of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville 1960. This short monograph includes some biographical information on John Seller, John Thornton, William Fisher and others involved in the publishing of The English Pilot. Verner lists 37 editions of The Fourth Book, which covered American waters, published from 1689 to 1794. He also discusses the Atlas Maritimus, a companion publication with some of the same maps.

Warhus, Mark, Another America: Native American Maps and the History of Our Land, St. Martin's Press, New York 1997.

Weslager, C. A., Dutch Explorers, Traders and Settlers in the Delaware Valley 1609-1664, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1961. Dutch 17th century maps of the Delaware region are listed along with a discussion of Dutch place names. Weslager also wrote The English on the Delaware: 1610-1682, Rutgers University Press 1967, a companion volume.

Wheat, J. C. & Brun, C., Maps and Charts Published in America before 1800, Yale University Press 1969. Well known reference with detailed written descriptions of 18th century maps, and a few map reproductions.

Wieder, Frederick C., Monumenta Cartographica: Reproductions of unique and rare maps, plans and views, 5 volumes, M. Nijhoff, The Hague 1925-33. These are large elephant folios containing reproductions of old maps. Only two maps reproduced from Vingboons manuscript atlas circa 1665 concern Pennsylvania.

Williams, Oliver P., County Courthouses of Pennsylvania - A Guide, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA 2001. A primary source for county courthouse description, this book also provides some background history and town information. There are no maps.

Winsor, Justin (Ed.), Narrative and Critical History of America, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston 1884. This 8 volume nineteenth century history is packed with reproductions of maps, illustrations, and autographs from early documents, the most complete cartographic history of America ever assembled. They just don't make them like this anymore, it costs too much. There was another issue in 16 volumes in 1889.

Winsor, Justin, The Westward Movement: The Colonies and the Republic West of the Alleghanies 1763-1798, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge 1899. This history of the Ohio River valley has many maps and illustrations.

Wolter, J. A., Source Materials for the History of American Cartography, a chapter in American Studies: Topics and Sources, R. H. Walker (Ed.), Greenwood Press, Westport, CN 1976. A useful bibliography on maps though now dated. For more up to date reading suggestions, see Map History / History of Cartography.

Wolter, J. A. & Grim, R. E. (Eds.), Images of the World: The Atlas Through History, Library of Congress, Washington 1997. About fifteen chapters on several atlas topics with map reproductions. The chapters of interest for Pennsylvania mapping are: Wallis, Helen, Sixteenth-Century Maritime Manuscript Atlases for Special Presentation, with some reproductions of east coast manuscript maps; W. W. Ristow, Early American Atlases and their Publishers, a topic better covered in Ristow's 1985 book; Couzen, M. P., The All-American County Atlas: Styles of Commercial Landownership Mapping and American Culture, a discussion of the classic county atlases. An older article on county atlases is that of Thrower, N. J. W., The County Atlas of the United States, Surveying and Mapping, Volume 21, September 1961, pp. 365-373.

Woodward, David, The All-American Map - Wax Engraving and Its Influence on Cartography, The University of Chicago Press 1977. Wax engraving is the cheaper printing process that displaced lithography around 1880 and put Rand McNally and Cram at the forefront of American map publishing.

Yagoda, Ben, Unfolding the Nation, American Heritage Magazine, April 1988. This short summary of road map history is similar to the Ristow (1946) article.

Yorke Jr., D. A. & Margolies, J., Hitting the Road - The Art of the American Road Map, Chronicle Books, San Francisco 1996. One of the few books to be published about automobile road maps, this paperback emphasizes the cover illustrations of oil company maps.

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