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Pennsylvania in Old Geography Books 1790-1850

1789 The American Geography; or, A View of the Present Situation of the United States of America. by Jedidiah Morse. Elizabeth Town: Printed by Shepard Kollock, for the Author. M,DCC,LXXXIX. (1789). This is the first edition of this Morse geography, which was more didactic and influential than his earlier and concurrent Geography Made Easy. Its 536 pages have a more detailed description of the United States and some other countries and it came with two maps both missing in this copy: a map of the northern states (see Map 1789.3 in 18th Century Maps) and one of the southern states. The extensive Pennsylvania description extends from page 302 to 344 and only the early pages are shown here: 302-303 , 304-305. The third edition of 1796 is described below. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 8 x 5 inches.
1791 Geography Made Easy: Being an abridgement of the American Geography. Containing Astronomical Geography; Discovery and General Description of America, General View of the United States, ...by Jedidiah Morse, A.M. Minister of the Congregation in Charlestown, near Boston. Third Edition, corrected. Boston: printed by Samuel Hall, No. 53, Cornhill. MDCCXCI. The spine title is simply Morse's Geography. This edition of Morse's textbook has 323 numbered pages and contains 8 maps:1) World; 2) Solar System; 3) Figure of the Earth; 4) United States (described below); 5) South America; 6) Europe; 7) Asia; 8) Africa. Usually, some of the maps are missing in surviving copies. The famous first edition appeared in 1784 (see map 1784.2 in 18th Century Maps ) and the second in 1790. The fourth edition appeared in 1794 printed by Thomas & Andrews, Boston. The book continued in publication until the 1820s reaching over 20 editions, the later ones co-authored by Jedidiah's son, Sidney Edwards Morse. (Jedidiah's other son, Samuel Finley Breese Morse, was a noted painter and in his spare time invented the telegraph and 'Morse Code.') Morse's American Geography, a more 'scientific' work, first appeared in 1789. In this book, the description of Pennsylvania appears on the following pages: 145 , 146-147 , 148-149 , 150-151 , 152-153 , 154-155 , 156-157 , 158-159 , 160 . Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4.25 inches.
A MAP OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Engraved for Morses Geography. This intaglio printed map is folded in between pages 36-37 and differs from the map in the first two editions, map 1784.2. It shows the United States from Maine to Georgia and west to the Mississippi with a cutoff Florida. Pennsylvania is shown extended to about 42d 30m with no western boundary. Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina Western boundaries extend to the Mississippi with most of their Western territory occupied by Indian tribes: Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Cherokee. North of Kentucky is shown as Army Lands, private company tracts, and Indian tribes. The bottom says "Longitude west from London," but the actual zero meridian is just east of Philadelphia. Blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 175 miles. Size: 8.25 x 10 inches. Also shown as map 1791.3 in 18th Century Maps .
1796 The American Universal Geography, or, a view of the present state of all the empires, kingdoms, states, and republics in the known world… Part I ...of the American or western continent. By Jedidiah Morse D.D. Printed at Boston, by Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews. Third Edition June, 1796. This 810 page textbook covers the Americas. Part II with 690 pages covered Europe, Asia and Africa. The 28 maps called for are listed opposite the first page; the one for Pennsylvania is shown below. The description of Pennsylvania goes from page 532 to 564 and only a portion covering 'Agriculture, Manufactures, and Commerce' is shown here: 540-541, 542-543, 544-545. The 1812 edition gives the following history of this tome to that time: “The first edition of this work was published in 1789...called The American Geography. In 1793 the work was enlarged to 1250 pages, and published in two volumes, 8vo. under the title of The American Universal Geography. Three years after (this edition), it received a new and large impression, with very considerable improvements, and was increased in size to 1500 pages. A fourth edition appeared in 1801 and 1802… in 1805 a fifth edition was published…accompanied with A New and Elegant General Atlas, containing sixty three maps, drawn by Arrowsmith and Lewis." Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 9 x 6 inches.
PENNSYLVANIA DRAWN FROM THE BEST AUTHORITIES by Cyrus Harris, engraved by A. Dolittle, published by Thomas & Andrews. This map is from the third edition of The American Universal Geography by Morse described above. It can be dated 1789-95 by counties shown. There is no Erie triangle indicating the map was prepared prior to 1792. The 1768 Purchase Line from Canoe Place (Cherry Tree) to the Allegheny River at Kittanning is shown. There is a compass rose at upper left and longitude is from Philadelphia. Blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 25 miles. Size: 8.25 x 13.5 inches. Also shown as map 1796.1 in 18th Century Maps .
1797 A Short but comprehensive system of the Geography of the World: by way of Question and Answer. Principally designed for children and common schools. by Nathaniel Dwight. The Fourth Edition. Boston: Printed by Manning & Loring, for David West, No. 56, Cornhill. 1797. It is difficult to track the editions of this book because different printers numbered them differently. For example: "The first Albany edition from the second Hartford edition," appears in a 1796 printing; apparently the text first appeared in 1795. The earliest date seen is a Hartford edition of 1795. This book has around 210 pages printed in letterpress relief; there are no maps or illustrations. The question and answer format can be seen in the pages describing Pennsylvania: 168-169 , 170-171 , 172-173 . This format would indicate the book was to be used more by the teacher than the pupils. Dwight (1770-1831) was a physician and taught school, and came from a notable family. His mother was a daughter of Jonathan Edwards and his brother, Timothy Dwight, became president of Yale. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4 inches.
1801 Elements of Geography, containing a concise and comprehensive view of that useful science..., by Jedidiah Morse. Fourth Edition, Improved. Printed at Boston, by I. Thomas and E.T. Andrews. May 1801. The first edition was apparently in 1795 and the third in 1798. This tiny 144 page book has engraved maps of the World and of the United States, but unfortunately both are damage in this copy. There are no illustrations. The description of Pennsylvania is on page 94 . The author's program is stated in the preface: "This is intended as one of a series of books, to lead the Pupil, step by step, to perfection in the knowledge of geography. The first in this series is a small 'Astronomical and Geographical Catechism,' for the use of children under 8 years of age, published by Mr. Samuel Hall, of Boston. The second is the work before us, adapted to children from 8 to 14 years of age, and may be usefully read by those of a more advanced age. The third is Geography made Easy, which is an abridgement of 'The American Universal Geography,' and is now in use... . The fourth is The American Universal Geography, containing a complete system of that Science, for the higher classes in Academies, for Colleges, and private families." Also of interest is the following advertisement of the third edition, which gives some idea of how many of these books were printed: "The favorable reception of this little book, by the public, (two editions, amounting nearly to 8000 copies, having been sold in two years...)." Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 5.5 x 3.5 inches.
1805 A New System of Modern Geography or a General Description of the most remarkable countries throughout the known world; ...compiled from the most modern systems of geography, and the latest voyages and travels... by Benjamin Davies. Philadelphia: Published by Jacob Johnson & Co. No. 147, Market Street. and Jacob D. Dietrick, Hagerstown, Maryland. 1805. The spine title is Modern Geography. The title page says illustrated with eight maps, world and continental maps, plus a map of Great Britain. There is no regional Pennsylvania map and no illustratons. This is a 627 page book intended for the general public: "Observing a frequent demand in the book-shops for a system of Geography, more instructive and entertaining than the dry epitomes used in the schools, as elementary books, and yet less voluminous and expensive than Pinkerton's, Guthrie's, or Walker's Geographical Grammers, the Editor thought that such a treatise might be compiled by judicious extracts from these, with the help of Modern Travels and Voyages. Something more too might be introduced, in describing our own country, its moral and physical state, than is to be found in those volumes, without encroaching on the right, or swelling the treatise to the size, of Morse's American Geography." The authors mentioned prior to Morse were British and Modern Travels was apparently a book or periodical. In this geography, Pennsylvania is covered on pages 498-511: 498-499 , 500-501 , 502-503 , 504-505 , 506-507 , 508-509 , 510-511 . This is the earliest date seen for this geography by Davies (1774-1806); there are later editions after his death. He also wrote Some Account of the City of Philadelphia..., published in 1794. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
1805 A Geographical Dictionary of the United States of North America. Containing a general description of each state; and of each the population, number of acres, soil, productions, natural curiosities, various climates, &c. Also a description of the rivers, lakes, mineral springs, mountains, manufactures, trade and commerce. With a succinct account of Indiana, Michigan, and upper and lower Louisiana territories. Likewise the population of each county, township, and those towns in the union, the population of which has been ascertained by the census of eighteen hundred. To which is added, a description of more than one thousand places, not noticed in any former geographical work. Embellished with a handsome map of the United States. By Joseph Scott, Philadelphia: Printed by Archibald Bartram, for Jacob Johnson, and Co. 147, Market Street. 1805. This is a dictionary of place names with description, and of almost six hundred un-numbered pages. It was intended for a general audience and was not a textbook. In the front is the map shown below. Pennsylvania is covered on 12 pages, including a county information table, as follows: 1-2 , 3-4 , 5-6 , 7-8 , 9-10 , 11-12 . Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 8.5 x 5 inches.
A MAP OF THE UNITED STATES AND PART OF LOUISIANA. Eng. by Wm. Kneass. This engraved map may originally have been bound but is now a loose inset in this copy of Scott's book. It shows the country to well beyond the Mississippi with the west blank except for rivers. In the east state boundaries are shown with dots and a few towns are named. Blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 200 miles. Size: 8.5 x 10.5 inches. .
1808 A New and Easy System of Geography and Popular Astronomy; or an Introduction to Universal Geography... . By John O'Neill. Baltimore: Printed for the Publisher, by C. Dobein and Murphy, 10 Baltimore Street. 1808. The spine title is ‘O'Neill's Geography.’ This is a 500 page textbook with no maps, but there is a sketch in the astronomy section in the back. Pennsylvania is covered on pages: 104-105 , 106-107, 108-109, 110. The entire text, including the astronomy section, is in the form of questions and answers as illustrated by the Pennsylvania pages. This appears to have been the first edition of this book, there were later editions up to about 1820. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7.5 x 4.5 inches.
1812 A New System of Geography; or a general description of all the considerable countries in the world. By Elijah Parish, D.D. Ornamented with maps. Second Edition. Newburyport, (Mass.) Published by E. Little & Co. C. Norris & Co. Printers. 1812. The spine title is ‘Parish Geography.’ This is a 366 page textbook which appears to have two maps, a world map in front and one of North America within. Both are now half gone; a portion of the world map can be seen at left. The North America map no longer includes the eastern half. The description of Pennsylvania is on the following pages: 90-91 , 92-93, 94-95, 96-97. An unusual feature is the several testimonials to the book in the front. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
1813 An Elementary Treatise of Geography containing a concise description of the different countries of the world...for the use of schools. By F. Nichols. A new Edition corrected and improved. Philadelphia: Printed for Francis Nichols. William Fry, Printer.1813. A 162 page textbook with one small engraved map of the Mediterrean Sea at the end, but no other maps or illustrations. The description of Pennsylvania is on pages 33 , 34 . The copyright notice is dated 1811, which may be the first edition date. A new Atlas, adapted to the use of students of geography and history was also published by Nichols in 1811, which apparently accompanied this text and contained 11 maps, but is not shown here. He also published A Compend of Geography in 1809. Francis Nichols was born in Ireland in 1737 and emigrated in 1769. He fought in the Revolution rising to Brigadier-General, and later became the first US Marshall of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He died in Pottstown in 1812, so this printing is postumous. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6 x 3.75 inches.
1813 Elements of Geography, or, an extensive abridgement thereof; exhibiting a view of the natural and artificial features.... illustrated with maps. by Rodolphus Dickinson, Esq.; accompanied with a new and extensive introduction...by E. Hoyt, Esq. Boston: Published by Bradford and Read, No. 58 Cornhill. 1813. The spine title is 'Dickinson's Geography.' This is a 360 page book that appears to have two maps originally, a frontispiece world map and a (probably) North America map, both now gone except for a fragment in this copy. There are no illustrations. The Pennsylvania description is on pages 156-157, 158-159, 160-161, 162. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 8.75 x 5.5 inches.
1814 A Compendious and Complete System of Modern Geography. or a view of the present state of the world, being a faithful abridgement of the American Universal Geography..., by Jedidiah Morse, Boston: published by Thomas and Andrews, J.T. Buckingham, Printer. Dated 1814. The title on the spine is simply Morse's Geography. The American Universal Geography was a large two volume work which first appeared around 1793 and this 670 page tome was an abridgement of the 1812 edition. This book contains 7 maps: World, Solar System, North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The North America map is in very poor shape in this copy, however the scale is small and there is no detail of Pennsylvania to see anyway. All the maps are engraved, folded and tipped in during binding. There are no illustrations. A description of Pennsylvania is on pages 186-196: 186-187 , 188-189 , 190-191 , 192-193 , 194-195 , 196-197 . Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 9 x 5.5 inches.
1814 The Rudiments of Geography: Being a concise description of the various kingdoms...in the World...with an introduction explaining the astronomical part of Geography. By John Hubbard, Esq. Sixth Editon, revised and corrected. Barnard, (Vt.) Published by Joseph Dix. I.H. Carpenter, printer. 1814. This 240 page text has no maps or illustrations and no mention of an accompaning atlas. The astronomical part is simply a definition of terms like meridion, equator, latitude, etc. The Pennsylvania description is on pages 69 , 70-71 , 72-73 . The Preface is dated 1803, so that may be the first year of publication. "Perhaps it may seem presumptuous in him (i.e. Hubbard) to attempt such a work, when Dr. Morse's geography is so universally celebrated. He feels the full force of this observation; but is confident that the gentleman who has obtained so many laurels, will not envy him one small sprig." The book is dedicated to John Wheelock, President of Dartmouth College. Very old fashioned letterpress printing using 'f' for 's'. Size: 7 x 4 inches.
1816 A New Compend of Geography: treating principally of America, by John Smith, A.M. First Edition. Cooperstown: Printed by H. and E. Phinney, and sold by them at their bookstore, wholesale and retail; and by I. and D. Todd, Hartwick. 1816. This is a 216 page textbook in question and answer form. Pennsylvania is covered on pages 66-67, 68-69, 70-71, 72-73, 74-75, 76-77, 78-79.There are no maps or illustrations. This may be the only edition and/or book by this author, who appears to have been a wise man, viz:. "Geographical knowledge, of all others, is perhaps of the greatest consequence. This teaches how small a part of the universe I mayself am. Hence grow more liberality, more respect and deference for the opinions of others, and more candor." Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6.5 x 4.5 inches.
1817 A Compendium of Geography, Being a Concise Description of the Various Parts of the World; adapted to the capacities of children and youth. By William A. Thayer. Portland: Published by Mussey & Whitman. F. Douglas, Printer. 1817. This is a small 88 page textbook entirely on the question and answer format as can be seen from the Pennsylvania questions on page 26. There are no maps or illustrations and it has a plain pasteboard cover with no title. Portland apparently means Maine, as there is a note inside from a Massachusetts clerk and encomiums from other bay state residents. At that time, Maine was part of Massachusetts. Printed from letter press type. Size: 6.5 x 4.25 inches.
1818 An Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography, on the plan of Goldsmith and Guy; comprising rules for projecting maps. By J.A. Cummings. Sixth Edition. Boston: Published and sold by Cummings and Hilliard, No. 1, Cornhill. 1818. The first edition was in 1814. This 316 page text was accompanied by an atlas, shown below. The short description of Pennsylvania is on page 20 . There is a long preface with instructions to the teacher; however the most interesting feature is a 15 page section on map construction, only the first few pages are shown here: 241 , 242-243 . 244-245 . The rigor involved indicates this book was intended for advanced students. The map section contains some sample maps, one engraved, but none of the Pennsylvania region. Joseph Guy published school geographies in England. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6.75 x 4.25 inches.
(1822) School Atlas to Cummings' Ancient & Modern Geography. Eighth Edition. Boston: Published by Cummings and Hilliard, at the Boston Bookstore, No. 1 Cornhill. This is the 8th edition of this undated Cummings school atlas which would place it circa 1822 based upon the editions of the geography. This particular copy was signed and dated by the owner Drusilla Bucher Feb. 24th, 1828 on the blank verso of a map. There is some poetry written below the name in her hand writing. The atlas has paper covers and there are 7 double page maps (North and South America, United States, Africa, Asia, Britain, and Europe) and 1 set of folded pages for a world map. The spine has been hand sewn. The cover is printed in relief; the maps are engravings. Size: 9.5 x 6.25 inches.
THE UNITED STATES, published by Cummings & Hilliard, No. 1 Cornhill. Boston. H. Morse, Sc. This engraved double page map of the United States appears in the Cummings atlas described above. It is undated, as are all the maps in the atlas. However, Alabama (1819) is shown as a state, while Missouri (1821) is not; so this appears to agree with the circa 1822 date used above. Blank verso, longitude from Greenwich. Scale: 1 inch = 160 miles. Size: 8 x 10.5 inches with the map running over the neat line to the edge of the paper.
1820 An Epitome of Modern Geography, with maps; for the use of common schools. By J.E. Worcester. Boston: Published by Cummings and Hilliard, Boston Bookstore, No. 1 Cornhill. According to the 'advertisement', this 156 page textbook originally had three maps: World, Europe, and United States. Unfortunately they are missing from this copy; although there is no obvious indication they were ever bound. Perhaps they were not ready at printing. Pennsylvania is covered with a short description on pages 48-49. The 'advertisement' also says: "This little book is, for substance, an abridgment of the modern part of the author's work, entitled Elements of Geography, Ancient and Modern, a system adapted to the use of academies and higher schools. In preparing this, the object has been to furnish, for the use of common schools, a treatise of geography, at once concise and comprehensive; one of which the expense would be so small as to place it within the reach of all classes of the community." This small book has marbled covers and a leather spine with no title. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
1822 Rudiments of Geography, on a New Plan, Designed to Assist the Memory by Comparison and Classification; with Numerous Engravings of Manners, Customs and Curiosities. Accompanied by an Atlas... By William C. Woodbridge, A.M. Second Edition. Hartford: Samuel G. Goodrich.1822. This is a 208 page book with numerous illustrations. There is a short description of Pennsylvania on pages 70-71 and 72-73 . Although Goodrich is associated with many textbooks, he was primarily a publisher at first, not an author. This is believed to be the earliest geography he published. The accompanying atlas is described below. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6 x 3.75 inches.
(1823) School Atlas to Accompany Woodbridge's Rudiments of Geography. Atlas on a new plan, exhibiting the prevailing religions, forms of government, degrees of civilization, and the comparative size of towns, rivers, and mountains, by William C. Woodbridge, A.M. Late Instructor in the American Asylum. Hartford: For sale by Oliver D. Cooke & Co. P. Canfield, Printer. This paper cover atlas has 9 maps: 1) The World, 2) Chart of the Inhabited World, 3) North America and the West Indies, 4) United States (shown below), 5) South America, 6) Europe, 7) Asia and Australia, 8) Africa, 9) Isothermal Chart (World). A couple maps are dated 1821, the world map at the back is dated 1823. The copyright notice on the front says 46th year of independence or 1822. The Library of Congress lists editions for 1822, 25, 26, 29-33. All the maps are double page (~9.5 x 12 inches) and have blank verso; and appear printed from engravings.
UNITED STATES. This map is from the above Woodbridge atlas and shows the eastern United States to just beyond the Mississippi. Missouri and Louisiana are states, Arkansas is still a territory. There is an inset of Maine at lower right. No maker or engraver is identified, the map appears to be a copper plate engraving. Longitude from Washington, blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 160 miles. Size: 8.5 x 11 inches.
1822 A New System of Modern Geography, or a view of the present state of the World. By Sidney E. Morse, A.M. Accompanied with an atlas. Published by George Clark, Boston; and Howe & Spalding, New Haven. Jonathan Howe, Printer, Boston. Sept. 1822. "The Atlas which accompanies this work, except the part relating to the United States, is principally a reprint of the latest edition of Arrowsmith." The atlas is believed to be the one described below. There are no maps or illustrations in this text of 676 pages. It appears to be a first edition and the first geography from Sidney alone, without his father, Jedidiah Morse, as co-author. The Pennsylvania description is on pages 131 , 132-133 , 134-135 , 136-137 , 138 . Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 9 x 5 inches.
1822 A New Universal Atlas of the World; comprising, in twenty maps, carefully prepared, from the latest information, and neatly engraved, the World, its several grand divisions, and principle subdivisions. By Jedidiah Morse, D.D. and Sidney E. Morse, A.D. New Haven: Published by Howe & Spalding. 1822. This atlas has twenty engraved maps by N. & S.S. Jocelyn and A. Daggett. The United States map is double page and engraved by Annin & Smith, sc. Boston. This atlas is believed to be the one referred to in the geography above as it comes from the same publisher. Intaglio prints, marbled cover with no title. Size: 11 x 9.5 inches.
UNITED STATES. Annin & Smith, sc. Boston. This map is from the atlas above. Blank verso, longitude west from Greenwich at bottom, from Washington at top. Scale: 1 inch = 175 miles. Size: 10 x 17 inches.
1822 A Compendius System of Geography; being A Description of the Earth, ...To which is added, plain directions for constructing maps illutrated by plates. With an atlas. By Jacob Willetts. Second Edition Revised. Poughkeepsie: Printed and Published by P. Potter, for himself, and for S. Potter & Co. No. 87, Chestnut-St. Philadelphia. 1822. The atlas mentioned is shown below; and this 324 page textbook has no other maps. A couple pages on map drawing at the back have a few simple illustrations. The Pennsylvania description is on the following pages: 53 , 54-55 , 56. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4 inches.
(1820) This untitled plain gray cover school atlas was published by P. Potter, Poughkeepsie 1820, and was made to accompany Willetts geographies. There are seven maps in all: World (folded 8.5 x 14.5 inches), North America, United States (folded 11 x 13.25, shown at left), South America, Europe, Africa, Asia. The five unfolded maps are double page, 10 x 8.5. Most of the maps are dated 1820 and five are hand colored. All are blank verso. On the United States map, Illinois (1818) is shown as a state but Alabama (1819) is not; indicating the map was prepared circa 1818.The country is shown to the Mississippi with Florida cut off. Paraclete Potter may have engraved these maps, but that seems unlikely. He is stated as the publisher on five of them, but who actually made them is not known.Size: 8.5 x 5 inches.
1823 Geography: or a Description of the World In Three Parts - Part I. Geographical Orthography, divided and accented. Part II. A Grammer of Geography, to be committed to memory. Part III. A Description of the Earth, manners and customs of the inhabitants, manufactures, commerce, government, natural and artificial curisosities, &c. to be read in classes. Accompanied with an Atlas. By Daniel Adams, A. M. Seventh Edition. Boston: Printed and Published by Lincoln & Edmands, No. 53 Cornhill 1823. The preface, presumably to the first edition, is dated 1818. This 324 page text has a section in the back on the construction of maps, which contains the only illustrations. The accompanying atlas is described below. The Pennsylvania description is in Part II on page 32. Daniel Adams (1773-1864) was a noted physician, textbook author, and state legislator and rates a listing in Wikipedia. A later, and somewhat different, 1839 edition of this geography is described below. Printed in letterpress relief with the illustrations probably printed with stereotypes. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
(1826) School Atlas to Adams Geography. Boston: Published by Lincoln & Edmands, no. 59 ...?. 1826. This paper cover atlas contains the following maps: The World; North America; United States; New England; South America; Europe; England; Asia; Africa. The New England map is an inset on the United States map. This atlas, in a slightly later edition as shown here, accompanied the geography by Daniel Adams described above. The world and United States maps are double page (~8 x 13 inches); all the others are single page (~8 x 6.5 inches). An ad for a bible appears on the back cover. The maps have blank verso and appear to be lithographs as are the cover pages. If they are lithographs, these would be among the earliest such maps made in the United States. So, it is possible they are very lightly printed engravings.
UNITED STATES. Published by Lincoln & Edmands, Boston. Annin & Smith, Sc. The name of the engraver is indistinct but appears the same as on the other maps. This map is from the above Adams atlas and shows the eastern United States to beyond the Mississippi. Missouri and Louisiana are states, Arkansas is still a territory. New England appears as an inset at a larger scale. In Pennsylvania, a few towns and streams are identified. The map appears to be a lithograph (or very lightly printed engraving) with longitude from Philadelphia at bottom and from London at top, blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 185 miles. Size: 8 x 13 inches.
1827 Outlines of Modern Geography, on a new plan, Carefully adapted to Youth, with numerous engravings of cities, manners, costumes, and curiosities, Accompanied by an Atlas. By Rev. Charles A. Goodrich. Stereotyped by James Conner, New-York. Boston: Published by S.G. Goodrich. Sold by Richardson and Lord, No. 133, Washinton-Street. 1827. The atlas mentioned is not included here. These separately prepared atlases were not printed in as many copies as the geographies, and are relatively rarer. This is another of the earlier geographies published by S.G. Goodrich; whether S.G. and Charles are related is not known. The book is 252 pages, and although the title advertises numerous engravings, they number something less than that. We know the book was printed from stereotypes, since the preparer is credited, not the usual thing. The description of Pennsylvania is on pages 48-49 , 50 . Printed in letterpress with wood engravings printed by stereotypes. Size: 6 x 3.5 inches.
1828 Morse's School Geography on an Improved Plan designed to aid the memory and strengthen the judgment of the pupil by teaching him to compare and classify facts. Accompanied with an atlas. Twenty-sixth Edition. Boston: published by Richardson & Lord 1828. This title is on the cover, and the atlas is believed to be the one described below. The title inside is: A New System of Geography, Ancient and Modern, ... . By Jedidiah Morse, D.D. and Sidney Edwards Morse, A.M. This 300 page textbook has a 20 page appendix on the ancient world and no maps or illustrations. The preface is on the following pages: iii , iv-v , vi-vii , viii-ix , x . It gives S.E. Morse's view of the early history of American geographies crediting his father now dead, and some reasons for the current edition which first appeared in 1822. Some of the other authors included here are named. This is the last (or very nearly the last) edition of Jedidiah Morse's famous geography that first appeared in 1784. The Pennsylvania description appears on the following pages: 79 , 80-81 , 82-83 , 84 . The text has changed from 1784, but the basic straight-forward description plan is the same. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 7 x 4.25 inches.
(1822) Atlas to Morse's Geography. This is a school atlas with marbled paper covers and containing eight maps by N. & S.S. Jocelyn, sc. (North America, South America, British Islands) and Annin & Smith, sc. Boston (United States, Asia). The World, Europe, and Africa maps are anonymous. The World and United States maps are double page. An atlas similar to this (except for the order of maps) was seen elsewhere which bears the same title but has the imprint 'Boston: Published by Richardson & Lord.' So, that is probably the publisher of this atlas. It is undated but Missouri (1821) appears as a state on the United States map, so it probably dates circa 1822. The eight maps are a subset of the maps contained in the twenty map 1822 Morse atlas described above: A New Universal Atlas of the World. The differences are in the World map which is only a single page map here; and in the amount of detail shown on three other maps though they are printed from an otherwise identical plate. The maps are intaglio prints, with blank verso. Size: 11.5 x 9.5 inches.
UNITED STATES. Annin & Smith, sc. Boston. This map is from the atlas above. It is identical to the United States map shown above for the Morse atlas A New Universal Atlas of the World, except for the outline hand coloring. Blank verso, longitude west from Greenwich at bottom, from Washington at top. Scale: 1 inch = 175 miles. Size: 10 x 17 inches.
1834 System of Geography By M. Malte-Brun, Containing a Description of all the Empires, Kingdoms, States and Provinces, in the Known World; with additions and corrections by James G. Percival. Embellished with a complete atlas, and a series of beautiful engravings. In three volumes. Boston: Printed and Published by Samuel Walker. 1834. This is a set of three leather bound books with the fanciful frontispiece at left, and here is the complete title page. Volume 1 contains a theory of geography and Asia; Volume 2 covers Africa and America; and Volume 3 covers Europe. The first volume contains a short biography of Malte-Brun; and also has the author's preface on pages 3, 4-5, and 6. Some flavor of what he was about can also be gotten from the first few pages from the Table of Contents for Volume 1: i, ii-iii. The description of Pennsylvania is on pages 220, 221, and 222 of Volume 2. Following page 220 is the engraved view of Philadelphia shown below. This famous geography was intended as a general work rather than a textbook. There were several American versions including an 1827 six volume edition put out by Anthony Finley. This edition was accompanied by a forty map atlas not included here, however the Pennsylvania region map from an 1830 edition is shown below. Printed in letterpress relief, the illustrations and maps are engraved. Size: 11 x 9.5 inches.
PHILADELPHIA. Drawn by J. R. Smith. Engraved by J. B. Neagle. This distant view of the Philadelphia waterfront from the Delaware River appears opposite page 220 in Volume 2 of the Malte-Brun geography, and all three volumes are filled with various views like this. There are views of Boston, New York, and Baltimore, for example. Printed from an engraving and then bound with the text. View size: 5.5 x 8 inches.
NORTH AMERICA. Illman & Pilbrow, scuplt. Boston: Published by Samuel Walker. This map appears opposite page 177 in Volume 2 of the Malte-Brun geography. There is no regional Pennsylvania map, although the three volumes have continental maps and some other region maps, of European countries for example. Probably printed from a copper plate engraving and then bound with the text. View size: 11 x 8 inches extending beyond the neat line. Scale: 1 inch = 500 miles.
(1830) THE MIDDLE STATES MARYLAND & VIRGINIA, J. H. Young Sc. This map is from A New General Atlas Exhibiting the Five Great Divisions of the globe, Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Oceanica, with their several Empires, Kingdoms, States, Territories and other subdivisions, corrected to present time. Drawn and Engraved particularly to illustrate the Universal Geography by M. Malte-Brun, Published by John Grigg Philadelphia 1830. This Pennsylvania regional map is from an earlier edition of the atlas accompanying Malte-Brun's geography than the edition shown above. It includes New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia,and is similar to others of the time. Roads are indicated with thin lines. This map appears identical to one that appeared in Grigg's American school atlas, exhibiting the different grand divisions of the globe, together with a set of maps particularly adapted to illustrate the geography of North and South America, according to the political divisions of the present time. Drawn and engraved from the latest and best authorities. Philadelphia: John Grigg, No. 9 North Fourth Street. 1830. Blank verso; longitude west from Greenwich at top, from Washington at bottom. Size: 9.75 x 8 inches. Scale: 1 inch = 88 miles.
1834 Deutsche Geographic, oder Welt- Beschreibung fur Schulen u. Hauslichen Gebrauch. Erste Americanische Fluflage. (German Geography, or World Description for School and Home Use. First American Edition.) by Samuel Sigfried. Millgrove, Bushkill Township, Northampton County, Pennsylvania. Printed by Samuel and Solomon Sigfried 1834. The spine title is Sigfried's Geographie. This is a German language textbook of 360 pages with no maps and only a couple wood engravings. As the title suggests, this is a book intended for both school and general use. It starts with a geography grammer followed by description of each of the states, followed by countries. The Pennsylvania coverage is on pages 42, 43. See the 1835 German geography below. Printed in German gothic letterpress relief with wood engraving illustrations. Size: 7 x 4.25 inches.
One of the few illustrations in the book is of a thermometer shown at left. It explains the difference between the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. Wood engraving set with letterpress type. Size: 7 x 4.25 inches.
1835 A Practical System of Modern Geography; or a view of the present state of the World. Simplified and adapted to the capacity of youth. Containing numerous tables...; Embellished with numerous engravings of manners, customs, etc. Accompanied by a new and improved atlas. by J. Olney, A.M. Nineteeth Edition. Robinson, Pratt & Co., 259 Pearl Street, New York. 1835. A 288 page textbook with no maps but numerous wood engraving illustrations. The accompanying atlas is described below. Olney was a teacher: "Having been for a number of years occupied in the instruction of youth, and principally in the science of Geography, I have, in common with others, long regretted that no work well adapted to the instruction of youth on this subject could be obtained... In preparing this work, I have endeavored to adapt it to the natural progress of the youthful mind." Pennsylvania is described on pages 83 , 84-85 , and as they show, the book was organized in a question and answer form. Jesse Olney (1798-1872) was a prolific writer of texts including readers, history and arithmetic, as well as geography books. His first efforts appeared in the 1820s. Printed in letterpress relief and the illustrations are also printed in relief, probably stereotypes from wood engravings. Size: 6 x 4 inches.
(1837) A New and Improved School Atlas, to accompany the Practical System of Modern Geography. by J. Olney, A.M. New York: Published by Robinson, Pratt & Co. 1837. This paperback atlas has no text and 13 numbered maps: The thirteenth map, not titled on the cover page, is a comparative size chart. The Pennsylvania map is titled "Middle States" and is undated. Most of the maps are dated 1829 and have blank verso and longitude from Washington. The back of the cover is filled with advertising blurbs from papers and people very like today's books. The maps appear to be printed from copper plate engravings. Size: 12 x 9.5 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. This hand colored and double page intaglio map is from the above Olney atlas and shows the region from New York to North Carolina and west to include all of Pennsylvania. The counties and county seats are identified and railroads and canals shown. Longitude from Washington, blank verso. No indicated scale, but 1 inch ~ 50 miles. Size: 16.5 x 10 inches.
1835 A Geography of Pennsylvania, for the use of schools, and private families. by Rebecca Eaton. Philadelphia: Key & Biddle - Minor Street. 1835. Although this book is dated 1835, the map attached at the front is dated 1837 and was likely added later by either the publisher or owner. This geography has 264 pages, a very few of which contain woodcut illustrations. This one shows the town of Economy in Beaver County, now called Old Economy Village and a state historical park. Since the entire book is about Pennsylvania the table of contents is shown here , and here . There is a multipage addendum at both front and back listing other works published by Key & Biddle. This is the earliest geography textbook seen whose subject is Pennsylvania. The preparation of school textbooks was one of the few professions open to women at this time since many teachers were women, and the ads list other texts by Mrs. Somerville and Mrs. Sigourney. There is no information about Rebecca although she must have been a school teacher since she begins the first page with "My dear pupils." The chapters are called "Letters" with the first being Letter I. Printed in letterpress relief with wood engraving illustrations printed in relief. Size: 7.5 x 4.5 inches.
(1837) MAP OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA compiled from the latest authorities. Philadelphia. Published by Edward C. Biddle. 1837. This intaglio map from a copper plate engraving is attached to a page at the front of the Eaton geography book above. It was probably done by the owner of this copy as another edition was seen lacking this map. It is similar to the map appearing in the 1843 Trego geography below. There are insets of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia at the bottom. Longitude from Washington, blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 50 miles. Size: 8 x 10 inches.
1835 A System of Modern Geography, for schools, academies, and families, designed to answer the twofold purpose of a correct guide to the student and of a geographical reading book. Revised and Improved. Fourth Edition. By Nathaniel G. Huntington, A.M. Hartford: R. White, and Hutchison & Dwier. 1835. This 306 page textbook has no maps but does have small woodcuts scattered throughout. The Pennsylvania description is on pp 67-71 with a couple illustrations: 66-67, 68-69, 70-71. The illustration of Pittsburgh on page 70 is the same as that on page 125 in the Adams geography below. Printed in letterpress relief with the illustrations probably printed with stereotypes. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
(1836) Huntington's School Atlas: Drawn and engraved expressly to illustrate and accompany The System of Modern Geography; by Nathaniel G. Huntington, A.M. Hartford: Published by R. White, and Hutchison & Dwier. Sixth Edition 1836. Copyright 1833. This 30 page atlas accompanied the geography above, though this particular copy is a later printing and has a portion of the front cover missing. The four pages in front and back are printed tables and the pages in the middle are 12 maps with blank verso that are intaglio prints. The United States and eastern United States regional maps are double page. The maps contained are listed on the paperback front cover. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE WITH PART OF THE SOUTHERN & WESTERN STATES. G.E. Sherman, sc. N. Haven. This is the eastern regional map from the atlas above, it is an intaglio print and double page. Most of the maps in the atlas are anonymous, but this one has the engraver identified. Longitude from Washington at top, west from Greenwich at bottom. Blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 75 miles. Size: 17 x 10.5 inches.
1835 Allgemeine Beschreibung der Welt oder Kurzgefaßte Darstellung des Wissenswürdigsten aus der Sternkunde, Naturgeschichte und Erdbeschreibung Bearbeitet nach den Neuesten und Besten quellen; für die Deutschen Bewohner Amerika's. (General Description of the World or Short Representation of Astronomy, Nature Story and Earth Description after the newest and best sources; for the German Inhabitants of America.) By E. Ludwig Walz, and given by Heinrich Diezel II Co., Lebanon County Pa. Philadelphia: Published by J.G. Wesselhoeft, 1835. The spine title is Geographie. This is a German language textbook of 428 pages with a few wood engravings in the text and one map. Wesselhoeft appears to have established German/English bookstores in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Pennsylvania had large German immigration from the late 17th to the mid 18th century, and a significant German language press developed around Germantown and Lancaster. This is a textbook intended for both school and general use. It starts with a geography discussion followed by description of each of the states, followed by countries. The Pennsylvania coverage is much more extensive over pages 163-228; only the first few pages are shown here: 163 , 164-165. A description of the individual counties begins on pages 180-181 and extends to page 228. Printed in German gothic letterpress relief with wood engraving illustrations. Size: 7 x 4.75 inches.
DIE NEUE WELT. This map of the western hemisphere appears on page 87 and is the only map in the book. The numbers refer to geographic forms as described in the text at the bottom. Wood engraving set with letterpress type. Size: 4 x 4 inches (map).
1837 Elementary Exercises in Geography for the Use of Schools, By Samuel H. Gummere, Sixth Edition, Corrected and Improved. Kimber & Sharpless, No. 8 South Fourth St. Philadelphia. This small 180 page textbook has no maps or illustrations; and is intended for small children. The Pennsylvania description is on the following pages: 32-33, 34-35. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6 x 3.75 inches.
1838 Analytical Geography, A System of Teaching by Single Topics. By J. U. Parsons. Framingham: Boynton and Marshall. 1838. This small 86 page textbook has several white-on-black simple woodcut maps. The included map of the eastern United States is shown below. In addition, there is a map of Europe and four hemispherical maps. There is no specific Pennsylvania section, but the state is included in Lessons XVIII to XXI on pages: 31, 32-33. Parsons made other little books like this, as the cover at left shows. "This book aims to save the labor of learning, only to be forgotten; and to do this, it presents one single object at a time, to the attention of the pupil. This is the course pursued in every other science." In other words, Parsons wanted to make the small size of this text a virtue. Printed in letterpress relief and woodcuts, probably from stereotypes. Size: 5.5 x 4.75 inches.
UNITED STATES. This simple white-on-black woodcut map appears on pages 30 and 35 in Parsons' book. The heavier white lines divide the Eastern states, the Middle states, the Southern states, and the Western states; which are treated as groups in the written description. Longitude from Washington at top, from Greenwich at bottom; blank verso. Scale: 1 inch ~ 400 miles. Size: 4 x 4 inches.
1839 Modern Geography In Three Parts - Part I. A Grammar of Geography, Concisely arranged to be committed to Memory with Practical Questions on the Maps. Part II. A Description of the Earth, manners and customs of the inhabitants productions manufactures commerce government religion literature natural and artificial curisosities to be read in classes. Part III. Geography Orthagraphy, or a pronouncing vocabulary of geographical names. To Which is Added A Brief Sketch of Ancient Geography; A plain method of constructing Maps and an Introduction to the use of the Globe. Illustrated by Numerous Engravings. Accompanied by an Improved Atlas. By Daniel Adams, A. M. Boston: Published by Robert S. Davis.1839. Seventeenth Edition, Revised. The title page gives 1839 as the date, but the cover says 1840. The copyright is 1838 by Davis. The atlas mentioned is not shown here. This 316 page text has a 24 page list of other textbooks for sale by the publisher at the back. The Pennsylvania description is in Part II on pages 122-123 , 124-125 , 126 , which includes some of the wood block illustrations. Daniel Adams (1773-1864) was a noted physician, textbook author, and state legislator and rates a listing in Wikipedia. Printed in letterpress relief with the illustrations probably printed with stereotypes. Size: 7.5 x 5 inches.
1839 Smiley's Geography.The Encyclopaedia of Geography: for the use of schools and families; on the plan of Murray's Encyclopaedia of Geography. Illustrated by numerous engravings, and accompanied by a new and beautiful atlas. By Thos. T. Smiley, A.M., M.D. Philadelphia: Hogan & Thompson. 1839. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838. It would be nice to see the "beautiful atlas," but it is not shown here. Hugh Murray published his Encyclopaedia in London in 1834; he is highly praised by Smiley in the preface. This is a 264 page text with many small (2 x 2 inch) wood block illustrations, a couple of which can be seen in the Pennsylvania description on pages 74-75 , 76-77 . Printed in letterpress relief with relief illustrations probably printed with stereotypes. Size: 7 x 4 inches.
1840 A Pictorial Geography of the World, comprising a system of Universal Geography, Popular and Scientific... illustrated with more than a thousand engravings... with a copious index answering the purpose of a gazetteer. by S.G. Goodrich. Third Edition. Otis, Broaders, and Company, Boston MDCCCXL. Although the title page says Third Edition, an earlier edition was not found, and perhaps it means third printing. Goodrich put his own name on both the cover and title page of this thick book, and probably consided it his magnum opus geography. It was intended for a general audience, not the school room, and has just over a thousand pages with many small black & white maps and illustrations, almost all wood engravings printed in relief. Pennsylvania is described on pages: 256-257 , 258-259 , 260-261 , 262-263 , 264-265 , 266-267 , 268-269 . The 4 x 5 inch map of the state on page 256 is also a woodcut; and there is a similar small Middle States map that includes Pennsylvania. An engraved page of city maps that includes Philadelphia was printed separately and tipped into the volume. Printed in letterpress relief with wood engravings printed in relief. Size: 11 x 7.5 inches.
1840 Mitchell's Geographical Reader: A System of Modern Geography..., by S. Augustus Mitchell. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. 1840. The first edition of this 600 page text appeared just the year before in 1839 and it was Mitchell's first geography. The book has no maps or illustrations; it was accompanied by Mitchell's School Atlas : comprising the maps, etc., designed to illustrate Mitchell's school and family geography ( LOC 1839 copy , also see 1864 here for a later edition). The Pennsylvania description is on pages 98-99 , 100-101 , 102-103 , 104-105 , 106 . At the back are twenty-four pages of a "Catalog of Valuable School Books," such as this example . Printed in letterpress type. Size: 8 x 5 inches.
1840 Union Map Questions, adapted to The Principal Atlases now in use in the Schools of the United States. By J. B. Fairfield. Andover: Published by Gould, Newman and Saxton. New York: Corner of Fulton and Nassau Streets. 1840. This is a small 116 page textbook with no maps or illustrations. The first twenty pages have some general expository material followed by around eighty pages of questions. As stated in the title, the book apparently is not intended to go with any particular atlas, and none are mentioned. The last pages are titled 'Statistical Tables,' and contain population data and lists of various kinds such as rivers and mountains. The Pennsylvania questions appear on pages: 41, 42. Printed in letterpress relief. Size: 6 x 3.75 inches.
1842 The Village School Geography. Embellished with numerous engravings and ten neatly engraved maps. By A Teacher. Hartford: Published by Noah P. Clark 1842. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1836, by White, Dwier, & Co. Sterotyped by Francis F. Ripley. Skinner, Printer. The 'teacher' provides a preface, but is not identified. The preface and dates indicate this is the sixth, or possibly seventh, edition of this 125 page book with small black and white illustrations and maps. The cover is damaged and unclear, but looks exactly the same as the title page shown at left. The Middle States description runs on pages 36-37, 38-39 and 40-41; the nature of the illustrations can be seen. The brown paper covers appear to be lithographed with a stitched cloth binding that may not be original on this copy. The text is printed in relief from stereotype plates. Size: 5.25 x 4.5 inches.
THE MIDDLE STATES. This full page map appears on page 35 of the above geography and there are other similar maps scattered through the book. Mountains and streams are indicated and a few towns named. Western Pennsylvania is cut off at Pittsburgh. Printed from a stereotype plate probably prepared from a wood engraving. Size: 5.25 x 4.5 inches.
1843 A Geography of Pennsylvania containing an account of the history, geographical features, soil...with a separate description of each county and questions for the convenience of teachers to which is appended a Travelers Guide, by Charles B. Trego, published by Edward C. Biddle, Philadelphia. This 384 page book contains numerous woodcut illustrations and some tables at the back, one of which is the Travelers Guide which is just a mileage table. Since the entire book is about Pennsylvania, the table of contents is shown here , and here . One of the illustrations shows Philadelphia from the river. Trego was a state geologist and later became a state legislator. Printed in letterpress relief with wood engraving illustrations printed in relief. Size: 8 x 5 inches.
MAP OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA compiled from the latest authorities. Philadelphia. Published by Edward C. Biddle. 1843. This engraved map is attached to a page at the front of the Trego book and is similar to the one in the Eaton book above but later and garishly hand colored. There are insets of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia at the bottom. Longitude from Washington, blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 50 miles. Size: 8 x 10 inches.
1843 A Systematic View of Geography by William Warren. Revised Edition. Portland, Me. Published by William Hyde: Bangor: E.F. Duren. 1843. This uncommon book is a 175 page text with a few woodcut illustrations and no maps. There is a short description of Pennsylvania on pages 43, 44-45, and the other states and countries have similar terse entries. Letterpress type with wood engraving illustrations. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
1844 The American School Geography, embracing a general view of mathematical, physical, and civil geography, adapted to the capacities of children. With an atlas (not included here). By Barnum Field, A.M. Fourteenth edition. Boston: Otis, Broaders, and Company. 1844. This 156 page textbook has a few woodcut illustrations but only one small map of North America. The first edition was apparently in 1831 per the copyright notice. A small piece on Pennsylvania appears on page 48. Printed in letterpress type with wood engraving illustrations printed in relief. Size: 7 x 4.5 inches.
NATURAL DIVISIONS. This 3.5 x 3.5 inch map of North America appears in the text of the above book to illustrate geographic land forms. The accompanying maps apparently were in a separate atlas not shown here. This map is printed in relief from a stereotype plate probably made from a wood engraving.
1846 Parley's New Geography. The title page has Peter Parley's Geography for Beginners with eighteen maps and one hundred and fifty engravings. New York: Huntington and Savage, 216 Pearl Street. 1846. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1844 by S.G. Goodrich. Stereotyped at the Boston Type and Stereotype Foundry. This 160 page textbook is for small children, and one of them has colored some of the pages pink. The Middle States section starts with a map on page 58, shown below, followed by text on pages 59 , 60-61 . Printed from stereotype plates made from letterpress type and wood engravings. Size: 6 x 5 inches.
MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES. This wood engraving map includes Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and most of Maryland. Rivers are shown and mountains indicated. The Philadelphia to Columbia Railroad and Pennsylvania Canal and several towns are named. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top. Printed from a stereotype plate. Scale: 1 inch = 130 miles. Size: 4.25 x 3.5 inches.
1846 State Book of Pennsylvania, containing an account of the geography, history, government, resources and noted citizens of the state; with a map of the state and of each county. For the use of schools and families. By Thomas H. Burrowes. Philadelphia: Uriah Hunt & Son, 44 Fourth St. 1846. This 314 page book is intended for both the general public and Pennsylvania schools as the title says. In the back is a nine page listing of other books available from the publisher. There is a one page map of the state at the front, shown below, and a small map (2 x 3 inches) and description of each county following the general state description. The general layout can be seen from the Table of Contents opposite a note to teachers from the author. A county table is at the front; and the county descriptions are illustrated here by Cambria County on pages 230-231, 232-233. There are a few illustrations scattered through the text, one is shown on the cover at left. There was an 1850 edition that is identical to this one except for 'corrections.' Printed in relief from stereotype plates made from letterpress type and wood engravings. Size: 7.5 x 4.75 inches.
MAP OF PENNSYLVANIA. This map serves as the frontispiece of Burrowes' book. The counties are not named, but are grouped into the classes by which they are described together. There are seven classes that are strictly geographical. Printed from a stereotype plate probably made from a wood engraving. Scale: 1 inch ~ 50 miles. Size: 3.75 x 6 inches.
1848 Key to Pelton's new and improved series of Outline Maps. Designed for schools and academies. By C. Pelton A.M. Philadelphia: J.H. Jones, Printer, No. 34 Carter's Alley. 1848. This 208 page book offers a window into a particular method of teaching school children about the world. The teacher would hang an outline map at the front of the classroom and, using the exercises in this book, guide the young scholars through a series of rhymed verses set to music, in which they would learn the names of geographical places and features. Some verses for the United States are shown here , sung to the tune The Rose of Allandale. This process is illustrated on the title page of the Mitchell geography described below, and the author describes the method in his preface . An advertisement at the front of the book describes the maps themselves (not shown here), available separately from the publisher. There were six maps in the series, each about six by seven feet in size, hand colored and varnished: 1. The Map of the World, 2. North America, 3. United States, 4. Europe, 5. Asia, 6. South America and Africa. The description of Pennsylvania appears on pages 74-75 , 76 . The ditty on the state is mercifully short. Printed in letterpress relief. There are no maps or illustrations. Size: 9 x 6 inches.
1849 Mitchell's Primary Geography, an easy introduction to the Study of Geography: designed for the instruction of children in schools and families. Revised Edition. Illustrated by one hundred and twenty engravings and fourteen maps. By S. Augustus Mitchell. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. 1849. Mitchell geographies had probably the widest distribution of any in the 19th century, appearing from circa 1839 into the 1890s, or over 50 years. The copyright indicates this edition appeared in 1846. The first edition was apparently in 1841 vis: "The present edition of Mitchell's Primary Geography is printed from an entire new set of stereotype plates. The liberal patronage bestowed on the work since its first publication, near five years ago... ." The title page has a great illustration of teacher and pupils studying a map. The book has 178 pages with Pennsylvania described in the Middle States section on pages 44-45 , 46 , along with a map described below. It was intended "to be used in the instruction of children in Families and Schools, as soon as they can spell and read with facility." The illustrations were probably originally wood engravings. Text and illustrations printed in relief from stereotype plates of an entire page. Size: 6 x 5 inches.
NO. 5 - MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES. This hand colored map on page 54 of Mitchell's geography was apparently printed from a stereotype plate, and probably began as an engraving. It shows New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware at a scale of 1 inch equals 125 miles. A similar map of the eastern United States titled NO. 3 - MAP OF THE UNITED STATES appears on page 40, and shows the country to just beyond the Mississippi. It has a scale of about 1 inch equals 450 miles. Both maps are immediately followed by a page of questions. The maps are about 4 x 3.5 inches, with longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, and text on the verso.
1849 Olney’s Quarto Geography for Families and Schools. By J. Olney, A.M. New-York: Pratt, Woodford & Company. Entered according to act of Congress… 1849 by J. Olney. The title page has a page of city maps opposite including Philadelphia. This 68 page textbook has about 27 other hand colored maps, including the one shown below, and many illustrations. The significance of this book is that it is one of the earliest 'quarto' size schoolhouse geographies, something the title is at pains to make clear. Jesse Olney had been publishing small textbooks since the 1820s in various subjects including geography, and one of his earlier editions is shown above. The short Pennsylvania description is on page 25. The illustrations were probably originally wood engravings and the maps wax engravings. Text and illustrations likely printed in relief from stereotype plates of an entire page. Size: 12 x 9.5 inches.
NO. 3 NEW-YORK, NEW-JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND & DELAWARE. This map with no attribution is page 24 in Olney's geography and is hand colored. The verso is text. Longitude from Greenwich at top, from Washington at bottom. Size: 10 x 8 inches. Scale: 1 inch = 56 miles. Probably originally a wax engraving.
1849 The Youth's Mapping Book, being an Introduction to Fitch's Chorography, Containing maps of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. First Series. Brooklyn: A.M. Wilder, 51 Fulton Street, 1849. First, it helps to know what 'chorography' means. The dictionary says: 1. The technique of mapping regions. 2. A description or map of a region, as opposed to a small area. This is a small school atlas with 6 plates, some showing multiple states. Pennsylvania has its own plate shown below. The map plates are separated by text pages printed in letterpress relief while the cover and maps appear to be lithographs. Size: 8.5 x 5.75 inches.
FITCH'S MAPPING CARDS PLATE NO. 5. Taken with permission from the National Geography. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 184_ by A.M. Wilder & Geo. W. Fitch. Lat & Long Lith. of B.F. Butler 90 Fulton St. N.Y. Although this map is undated, some others have an 1848 copyright date. This plate and text sheet are typical of all. The box under the map is for kids to try their hand at copying. The "National Geography" is possibly A national geography for schools... By S.G. Goodrich, which dates 1845-50. The map appears to be a lithograph with blank verso, longitude from Washington. Scale: 1 inch ~ 85 miles. Size: 4 x 5 inches.

Geography Books

1850 to 1900

1900 to 1950

Copyright 2009 by Harold Cramer. All rights reserved.
Revised February 2010; September 2011; Jamuary, August 2012; April, November, 2013; May, 2014; August, 2017.


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